02 Computers 5.0 - The Evolution of Information Technology...

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The Evolution of Information Technology
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The Evolution of Computers Mainframes (Big Iron) …IBM, CDC, Amdahl …Proprietary software …FORTRAN, COBOL …Batch, time-sharing Minicomputers …DEC, Data Gen, HP …PDP, Vax …C, Unix Microcomputers …Hand calculators …TRS, Apple, IBM …Hobby kits -> PCs Supercomputers …Vector processors …Cray, IBM, Fujitsu …Parallel processors …Massively parallel Networking …LANs, Ethernet …Client-server systems …Arpanet, NSFnet, Internet Batch Time-sharing Personal Collaborative
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From Eniac
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To Blue Gene P and beyond
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ASCI Purple (2004): 100 TeraFlops IBM Blue Gene P (2009): 1 PetaFlop Blue Waters(2011): “Several” PetaFlops
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The Evolution of Computing 1.5 y 1 y 2 y Doubling Time
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Some Extrapolation of the PC 2000 2010 2020 Speed 10 9 10 12 10 15 RAM 10 8 10 11 10 14 Disk 10 9 10 12 10 15 LAN 10 8 10 12 10 15 Wireless 10 6 10 9 10 12
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Some Examples Speed MHz to GHz to THz to PHz Memory MB (RAM) to GB (CD,DVD) to TB Bandwidth Kb/s (modem) to Mb/s (Ethernet) to Gb/s Internet2 (Project Abilene): 10 Gb/s Networks Copper to fiber to wireless to photonics “Fiber to the forehead…”
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Software and System Trends Algorithm improvements (genetic algorithms) Embodiment of techniques and processes into software Formalization and standardization People are the exception rather than the main line Distribution of computing, data, applications, and services Grid intercollection of resources Services as unit of IT, rather than bare-bones data and processing
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Technology Directions Access Bandwidth: 56 kb/s -> Mb/s -> 100 Mb/s-1 Gb/s
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course PUBPOL 481 taught by Professor Duderstadt during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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02 Computers 5.0 - The Evolution of Information Technology...

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