Veterinary_History_2011

Veterinary_History_2011 - History of Veterinary Medicine...

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Unformatted text preview: History of Veterinary Medicine J.D. Krehbiel, DVM, PhD 1 Early History of Veterinary Medicine Semitic Influence 2200 BC – 500 BC Babylonia Canaan 2 Early History of Veterinary Medicine Greek Influence 460 BC – 100 BC Hippocrates “Father of Medicine” Aristotle “Father of Biology” 3 Early History of Veterinary Medicine Eastern Asian Influence China- 947-928 BC Sun-Acupuncture India-273-232 BC King Ashoka 4 Early History of Veterinary Medicine Roman Influence 100 AD – 1000 AD Galen Physician/Anatomist Vegetius “Father of Veterinary Medicine” “Mulomedicina” 5 Dark Ages •Quackery •Deception 6 FORCES THAT SHAPED THE DEVELOPMENT OF VETERINARY SCIENCE Rebirth of art, science and humanities. Need to control diseases and plagues affecting farm animals and beasts of burden. Establishment of veterinary schools based on scientific discovery The development of a “profession” devoted to animal care and treatment of animal disease. 7 The Birth of Veterinary Education in the Age of Enlightenment Claude Bourgelat (March 27, 1712 – Jan. 3, 1779) Born the son of a noble Lyon family Received a classical education intending to practice Law Loved horses, became an expert rider At 28 was named director of Lyon Academy of Horsemanship Studied Math, Music and Manners Studied with 2 Surgeons – Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology 8 Claude Bourgelat con’t Highly cultivated and elegant writer – 200 papers on horses Elements of the principles of Veterinary art, New knowledge about Equine medicine High visibility with Henri Leonard Jean Baptiste Bertin and King Louie XV Bertin became the agent of agriculture reform for all of France Bourgelat was asked to establish a school to study the diseases of cattle and horses August 4,1761 Bourgelat was given a grant from King Louis XV to start the first CVM 9 Bourgelat’s first College of Veterinary Medicine: Admission – the ability to read and write 38 students enrolled at the school in Lyon Theoretical courses-3 classes: 1) osteology and mycology 2) materia medica 3) Physiology, Medicine, Pharmacology Students copied information verbatim Practical training sessions (dissections and botany and forge work The plague was stayed and the health of livestock was restored Students proved their worth in preventing epizootic diseases Bourgelat asked to create another veterinary school at Alfort 10 The spread of veterinary schools in Western Europe. 11 American History’s “Gilded Age” During the last third of the nineteenth century the Veterinary Profession established itself permanently in American history and culture. Characteristics of the time: Massive Immigration Explosive growth in urban and rural populations Industrial and Agricultural expansion Reform and expansion of education 12 Developments that Authenticated Veterinary Medicine as a Profession: Explosive industrial demands for mobile and stationery horse-power Rapid population growth and increasing middle-class wealth Demand for animal protein and a need for to ensure animal health, food safety Growth in the number and value of food animals and consequent spread of disease Universities established veterinary schools as professional schools Congress created the Bureau of Animal Industry – later the USDA Public health reform which utilized Veterinarians in civil service Public Health roles Society re-valued the role of canines as family members Zoos turned to Veterinarians to maintain the health of exotic animals Initiation of the Regulation of Veterinary Practice at both the state and federal levels Veterinarians established professional associations, research 13 laboratories, and journals Veterinary Medicine – 19 Century 1855 Michigan State College established 1862 Morrill (Justin Smith) Land Grant Act USDA founded 1863 United States Veterinary Medical Association formed 1879-1916 Major Veterinary Schools Established – Phase I Iowa State, Penn, Ohio State, Cornell, Washington State, Kansas State, Auburn, Colorado State, Michigan State, Texas A&M 1883 MVMA Founded 1884 Bureau of Animal Industries formed (Salmon) 1887 Hatch (William H.) Act – AES Support 14 Historical Establishment Of Veterinary Colleges Phase I – “Early Schools” Guelph Iowa State Pennsylvania Ohio State Montreal Cornell Washington State Kansas State Auburn Colorado State Michigan State University Texas A&M 1862 1879 1883 1885 1886 1894 1899 1905 1906 1907 1910 1916 15 Private Veterinary Colleges In the U.S. – 1852-1918 1852-1866 Veterinary College of Philadelphia 1857-1899 New York College of Veterinary Surgeons (NYCVS) 1875-1899 American Veterinary College (AVC) (A.F. Liautard) 1883-1920 Chicago Veterinary College 1891-1918 Kansas City Veterinary College 1892-1924 Indiana Veterinary College (Indianapolis) 1894-1920 McKillip Veterinary College (Chicago) 1890-1899 Detroit College of Medicine Veterinary Department 1897-1918 Grand Rapids Medical College Veterinary Department 16 Veterinary Medicine – 20th Century 1900 Industrial Revolution 1910 College of Veterinary Medicine, MSC Established 1914 Smith Lever Act – Extension/Outreach (4H) Major foot and mouth disease outbreak – Started in Niles, MI 1915 Abraham Flexner – Renaissance in Medical Education, Shift to state and federal funding, standardization and greater accountability of education 1915 Major new educational standards for education forced proprietary schools to close, decrease in DVM’s 1916 Vet Corp established – Major use in WW I 17 Phase II – “Post WWII Schools” Tuskegee Illinois Missouri, Georgia Oklahoma St., Minnesota UC-Davis Purdue 1943 1944 1946 1947 1948 1957 18 Veterinary Medicine – 20th Century 1931 Congress established federal funding for academic medicine 1933 American Animal Hospital Association Established 1943-1957 Post WW II Schools Established (Phase II) Tuskegee, Illinois, Missouri, Georgia, Oklahoma State, Minnesota, UC-Davis, Purdue 1945 Reform in Veterinary Medical Education 1964 Animal Welfare Act 1968- 1979 Phase III Schools Founded Mississippi State, Tennessee, Virginia-Maryland, Oregon, Tufts, North Carolina State, Wisconsin DVM Graduates 1430-2200 19 Phase III – “Capitation Growth” Saskatoon Louisiana State Florida Mississippi, Tennessee, 1963 1968 1971 Virginia-Maryland Oregon Tufts NC State, Wisconsin Prince Edward Island 1974 1975 1978 1979 1983 20 Veterinary Medicine – 20th Century 1971 MODVOPP Grants 1974 Hog Cholera Eradicated in U.S. 1980’s Profession became more sensitive to human/animal bond and animal welfare. Ethical issues and business management took on greater importance. 1984 Federal student loan programs expand Grants, loans and scholarships 1990’s New Challenges Public Health Role of Veterinary Medicine in Food Safety Computer Science Phase & Technology (CAT, MRI) Environmental Toxicology, Animal Waste, Odor Genetic Engineering, Molecular Biology Large Corporate Practices begin to form – Pet Smart, Vet Centers of America, Pet Practice 21 States with Veterinary Medical Schools 22 Evolution of Veterinary Medicine in the U.S. 30’s – Equine Medicine & Surgery 40’s – Shift from Equine to Food Animal 50’s – Species Specialization Large Animal Small Animal 60’s – Laboratory Medicine Profiles of Data Advanced Diagnostics 23 Evolution of Veterinary Medicine in the U.S. 70’s – Discipline Specialization Specialty Boards Proliferation of Schools Gender Shift 80’s – Human/Animal Bond Animal Welfare Ethics 90’s – Technology/Computer Phase Genetic Engineering Environmental Concerns/Toxicology Public Health/Food Safety Large Corporate Practices 2000’s – ??????????? Bio Security 24 Modern Day Colleges of Veterinary Medicine 1990 Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine 1999 St. Georges University School of Veterinary Medicine 2001 Western University , Pomona College of Veterinary Medicine 2005, St. Matthew’s, Cayman Islands 2008, University of Calgary; Calgary, Canada 2009 Am. U. of Antigua 25 VETERINARIAN'S OATH Being admitted to the profession of veterinary medicine, I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health and welfare, the prevention and relief of animal suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public health, and the advancement of medical knowledge. I will practice my profession conscientiously, with dignity, and in keeping with the principles of veterinary medical ethics. I accept as a lifelong obligation the continual improvement of my professional knowledge and competence. 26 College of Veterinary Medicine Michigan State University Founded 1910 Students per class = 108 Unique Aspects – Special Strengths Veterinary Technology Program Computerized Classrooms Equine Performance Center Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory State-of-the-art Diagnostic Center Oncology Center 18 Month Clinics Food Safety Program Student Center 27 Veterinary Contributions to Science and Medicine 1976-Dr. Fred Murphy (UC Davis) discovers Ebola virus 1985- Dr. Max Essex, Harvard, MSU-DVM identified HIV antigen based on earlier work with feline retroviruses 1986-BSE identified in UK 1989-Ebola virus outbreak in Reston, Vir . 28 Contributions Continued 1993- First DVM in outer space 1996-Dr. Marty Fettman joins Space Shuttle Columbia mission 1996- Dr. Peter Doherty-Australian DVM, awarded Noble Prize, Immunology 1999-Dr. Tracey McNamara recognized outbreak of West Nile virus in birds in New York Zoo 29 ...
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