VM_101_Lab_Animal_2011

VM_101_Lab_Animal_2011 - Michigan State University...

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Unformatted text preview: Michigan State University University University Laboratory Animal Resources Campus Animal Resources Danielle Ferguson, DVM, MS fergdan@msu.edu Jeanni Gaymer, DVM gaymerje@cvm.msu.edu 1 Ve te rinary Prac tic e Ve L aboratory Animal Laboratory Medicine Medicine 2 The Prac tic e o f Labo rato ry Animal Me dic ine Labo Where does a laboratory animal veterinarian practice ? 3 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarians Work with laboratory animals­ Work – A s part of the laboratory animal care As facility which provides the care for animals being used in research animals – Or conduct research – Or both 4 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarians Work with laboratory animals­ Work – Or work in a Or compliance role compliance 5 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarians Ve Work with laboratory animals­ – As part of a university 6 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarians Ve Work with laboratory animals­ – A s part of a corporation As Pharmaceutical company Biotech / Bioengineering A large Hospital large 7 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarians Ve Work with laboratory animals­ – A s part of a corporation As Contract lab Company which generate laboratory Company animals animals 8 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarians Ve Work with lab animals which may be­ traditional lab animals Or Or food animals Or Horses or other Horses large animals large 9 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Ve Education (after vet school) - Residency - Self taught 10 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Labo Education (after vet school) - Residency (2 – 4 years) Residency - Learn Clinical Medicine of lab animal Learn species & species - Learn the regulations & - Learn about proper husbandry & Learn facilities facilities - Learn how to do research 11 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Labo Education (after vet school) - Residency (2 – 4 years) Residency - Learn Clinical Medicine of lab animal Learn species 12 12 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Labo Education (after vet school) - Residency (2 – 4 years) Residency - Learn about proper husbandry & Learn facilities facilities 13 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Labo Education (after vet school) - Residency (2 – 4 years) Residency - Learn Clinical Medicine of lab animal Learn species & husbandry husbandry 14 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Ve Education – - Self taught requires – - 5 years experience years - Discipline to study 15 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Ve Board Certification – - Must pass the Certification Must exam exam - regardless of education mechanism mechanism 16 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Ve Board Certification – - Is not re quire d in order to work in this field. in However, it is very difficult However, To get a job without it. To 17 Labo rato ry Animal Ve te rinarian Ve Board Certified – ACLAM Diplomate (American College of (American Laboratory Animal Medicine) Laboratory 18 Laboratory Animal Medicine Medicine 19 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do In any of the kinds of facilities mentioned, a Lab Animal Vet can – - Direct a Lab Animal Care Facility Provide clinical Provide veterinary care veterinary - ­ Or both 20 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do In any of the kinds of facilities mentioned a Lab Animal Vet can – Collaborate with an Collaborate investigator on research investigator - Principal investigator Principal on a research grant on - ­ Or both 21 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do In any of the kinds of facilities mentioned a Lab Animal Vet can – - Provide regulatory oversight - Teach / Provide Training Or any combination of the roles mentioned ­ 22 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do Are there laws governing the use of animals in research? 23 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do There are laws which govern the use of There animals for Research, Teaching and Testing Teaching The Animal Welfare Act The - 1966 1966 - Implemented by the USDA Implemented 24 The Animal Welfare Act The Governs the use of Warm blooded Governs vertebrate animals vertebrate Except – rats, mice and birds Except bred for research bred - - Governs biomedical research - Does not govern farm animals Does used in production research used 25 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do There are laws which govern the use of There animals for Research, Teaching and Testing Teaching The Public Health Service Policy Policy -Implemented by the -Implemented Public Health Service Public 26 The Public Health Service Policy Policy Governs the use of All Vertebrate Governs Animals Animals - Governs biomedical research 27 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? Vet There are recommendations which There recommendations govern the use of animals for Research, Teaching and Testing Testing The Guide The -1963 -1963 28 28 The Guide The Governs the use of All Vertebrate Governs Animals Animals - Governs biomedical research - Does not govern farm animals Does used in production research used 29 The Guide The Used by AAALAC - the accrediting body for the Laboratory Animal Care (Association for the Assessment (Association And Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care – International) Animal 30 The laws which govern the use of animals for Research, Teaching and Testing Testing - Govern the quality of care provided to Govern lab animals lab - Govern the quality of animals - Guide the lab animal veterinarian in Guide providing medical care 31 31 To function effectively in any of these roles in Understand the goal of the regulations ~ ~ Eliminate, minimize or alleviate Eliminate, pain and distress in research pain animals ~ While facilitating good research facilitating 32 A nother Guide to the Goal - The 3 R’s +1 The Reduce Refine Replace Respect 33 The most important thing we do Is protect the animals do - Providing vet care 365 days a Providing year year - We have the authority We to require treatment, pain medications or euthanasia or 34 What does a Lab Animal Vet do ? do Provide vet care – 365 days a year Help Investigators Help – Advise Advise – Help find solutions to problems 35 The most important thing we do Is protect the animals Is By helping investigators – - choose the best medications, use the choose correct doses and use them properly So that pain or distress is alleviated distress 36 36 The most important thing we do Is protect the animals Is By helping investigators – - try to find out why animals are not doing well So that pain or distress is alleviated alleviated http://www.axolotl.org http://www.axolotl.org 37 The most important thing we do Is protect the animals Is By helping investigators – - try to solve problems that may or may try not be research related not So that pain or So distress is alleviated alleviated 38 38 To function effectively – To providing vet care or advising providing researchers researchers Understand the research and possible Understand adverse effects – adverse – Why?? Is the medical problem a result of the Is research? research? Is supportive care acceptable ? Is Is medical intervention appropriate ? Is Why ?? 39 To function effectively To Know about the species being Know used used – Why ?? Why What are the most common What species used in research ? species 40 90% of the animals used : 90% Rats & Mice 41 To function effectively To Do research animals from commercial vendors have diseases when they arrive at MSU?? No – for the vast majority Why?? We must know the source of the animal – Why?? 42 To function effectively To Know about the Know species. species. - Is the problem Is really a problem ? really - Know the diseases Know the behavior - Why?? 43 Know the species & strain Know the species & strain Is this a Is problem ? problem 44 Is anything wrong with this mouse? mouse? 45 Is the medical condition the result of a species specific issue or research species 46 Veterinary Care is also at the facility level – Herd Health Herd Ensuring proper living conditions – Husbandry is provided 365 days a Husbandry year – Appropriate sanitation to Appropriate transportation transportation – Appropriate bedding material – Appropriate & safe housing – Appropriate diet And maintaining herd health 47 Part of Veterinary Care is also Part Ensuring – – Proper anesthesia – Proper pain relief – Supportive medical care to improve Supportive an animal’s sense of wellbeing an Sometimes – deciding that euthanasia is best for that animal 48 An important function of the veterinarian veterinarian Provide veterinary oversight to ensure : – animals do not suffer pain or distress – Researchers conduct research as Researchers documented documented – Researchers perform procedures Researchers with expertise 49 49 An important function of the veterinarian veterinarian Exercise our professional Exercise judgment - facilitating the research in the context of animal welfare animal 50 Is providing medical care a big part of my job ?? of ? ? – ? Why ? Why 51 Part of our responsibility – Keep up with the regulations – The regulations change – And the interpretation by a And governing body, of any given regulation, may change regulation, 52 Facilities – from housing to buildings from Know the regulations because they are Know the driver the – Expect changes in Regulations Expect and materials and But - understand that ethics and But compassion must be involved and they compassion also evolve also 53 Understand what is required to maintain proper facilities to 54 Husbandry Husbandry Regulations, again, are the driver Regulations, – - From housing to diet to sanitation But - Keep up on improvements in But care as knowledge & understanding of the needs of the animals improve of And keep up on improvements in materials used materials 55 But – all the perfect housing But and food will mean nothing and Pay attention to animal – To its behavior – To the way it looks – example ­ newly arrived animals may not like the local water 56 To provide proper veterinary care, proper husbandry, proper housing, and appropriate oversight oversight We learn about We and work with many many species many 57 Salamanders Salamanders 58 Turtle Housing Turtle Housing 59 Lobster Housing Lobster 60 Fish ­ tumor Fish ­ tumor removal 61 Rattle Snake Rattle 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 Husbandry Husbandry Enrichment – a new issue – the lab animal veterinarians can promote, do research on & / or can insist on using 66 Enrichment Enrichment 67 Interaction with the Animals is Interaction with the Animals is Enrichment 68 69 69 Rabbits Housed on the Floor Rabbits Housed on the Floor 70 Training is a Role for Lab Animal Veterinarians Lab – Training investigators, staff and students and also animal care and staff so that they are better at doing things with the animals doing – Competence is mandated by law Competence So that pain or So distress is alleviated distress 71 We help create a training program for everyone using animals for Training is required Training Teach – Teach – – – – – – Regulations Proper & Safe Handling Proper & Safe Restraint Observation for signs of pain/distress/disease Clinical Techniques Occupational health & safety concerns 72 The Benefits of Training The Helps the institution reach the Helps ultimate goal of alleviating pain and/or distress Reduction & Refinement Reduction Disease / injury prevention or timely Disease intervention / treatment intervention Improved animal care Improved More reliable research data 73 73 The Benefits of Training The Proper handling Proper Proper Restraint Proper Become proficient at techniques Become - Side benefit - reduced investigator / staff / student distress - Investigators are more effective Investigators - reduces animal pain or distress reduces - produces better science produces 74 Training Program Training Training uses the animal Training species to be used for the project – project - so they get the so best training and the most experience experience 75 Models are used first – Models are used first – The Mouse 76 To Ensure Animal Safety To Ensure Animal Safety 77 Learn to handle animals without fear Learn 78 Rabbits require special handling Rabbits require special handling 79 To Provide Safe Restraint – To Provide Safe Restraint – safe for the animal 80 Safe Restraint Safe 81 Ha nd ling to ke e p th e Ha h a nd le r s a fe 82 Training Program Training Program Techniques 83 Techniques - injections Techniques 84 How to stay safe How to stay safe 85 86 86 Safe Restraint of Rats Safe 87 88 88 Animal Health Assessment A nimal 89 90 90 Is Mom caring for her Offspring? Offspring? 91 92 92 Very Full Cheek Pouches Very Is this animal Ok? 93 94 94 Keeping them warm during anesthesia Keeps them alive anesthesia 95 Teaching Labs Teaching Labs 96 We may assist investigators We may assist investigators 97 Instruction in the proper use of ­ Instruction in the proper use of ­ Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ­ Protects the user from contamination 98 PPE protects the user PPE Proper removal is important. 99 Teaching Proper Person Hygiene Teaching 100 All of this care helps to provide the best and All of this care helps to provide the best and most consistent research data 101 What do I like about lab animal What do I like about lab animal medicine No two days are the same Much more variety – ­ from medical issues to regulatory issues to administrative duties to teaching & training 102 What do I like about lab animal What do I like about lab animal medicine Lab animal vets help improve the lives of animals – Because we care about them and provide medical care for them – We get to give them a good life while they’re here 103 What do I like about lab animal medicine What do I like about lab animal medicine We get to train investigators to handle animals without fear – – Help people Help the animals with which they work We get to teach – Teach in classrooms – Teach people about animal research 104 What do I like about lab animal medicine What do I like about lab animal medicine We can have an impact on the future – we can have an effect on the regulations – we are helping science 105 What do I like about lab animal medicine What do I like about lab animal medicine Also help people accomplish important things We get to know the science before anyone else except those doing the research We get to learn about many many many species 106 A ccreditation of theAnimal Care Program is Voluntary Program I t demonstrates that the institution It A dheres to a high Standard – Standard But that standard must be maintained maintained 107 Educating the Public about the Importance of Animal Research Research 108 A nimal Research is necessary to advance knowledge advance 109 Animal Rights Animal Rights “The life of an ant and the life of The my child should be granted equal consideration.” Michael Fox (formerly of HSUS) Michael 110 Animal Rights Animal Rights “Even if animal research resulted in a Even cure for AIDS, we’d be against it. cure Ingrid Newkirk, PETA 111 112 112 The White Rat The 113 114 114 References http://www.radil.missouri.edu/info/dora/Dora.htm VCM 656­05 Fox, J.G., etal. (2002). Laboratory Animal Medicine 2nd edition. Academic Press Inc: 203 – 241 Laber­Laird, K., Swindle, J. M., Flecknell, P., (1996). Handbook of Rodent and Rabbit Medicine. Pergamon : 91 – 150 Harkness, J. E., Wagner, J. E. (1995) The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents 4th edition. Williams & Wilkins : 30 – 39, 151 – 154, 229 – 230, 297 – 299, etc. Quesenberry, K. E., Carpenter, J. W. (2003) Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents – Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd Edition. W.B. Saunders Company : 136­171. 115 References (cont’d) References Meredith, A., Redrobe, S. (2002) British Small Animal Veterinary Association Manual of Exotic Pets 4th edition. BSAVA : 52 – 64. Hrapkiewicz, K., Medina, L., Holmes, D. D. (1998) Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine – An Introduction 2nd edition. Iowa State University Press / Ames : 93 – 116. Cunningham, J. G. (1997) Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. W. B. Saunders Company Guyton, A. C., Hall, J. E. (1996) Textbook of Medical Physiology 9th edition. W. B. Saunders Company Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging & Cytopathology (VDIC) – Case Database http://www.vdic.com/casesdb/casedata.html 116 References (cont’d) References Murray, Michael J., WildWest Veterinary Conference Proceedings, October 2002 Kirk, Robert W. (1986) Current Veterinary Therapy IX Small Animal Practice. W. B. Saunders Company Bonagura, John. D. (2000) Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII Small Animal Practice. W. B. Saunders Company Percy, D.E. and Barthold, S.W. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 2nd edition, Iowa State University Press, Ames, 2001. 117 References (cont’d) References Weisbroth, S.H., Kraus, R.E. and Alan, L. (eds.) The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Academic Press, San Diego, 1994 Davies, Ron Rees, Davies, Jennifer A.E. Rees. Rabbit Gastrointestinal Physiology in Hernandez­Divers, Stephen J., Hernandez­Divers, Sonia M., editors. The Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice : Internal Medicine, vol. 6. Pennsylvania : W.B. Saunders; 2003 p 139 – 154. Paul Flecknell – CDs http://www.axolotl.org http://www.caudata.org 118 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course VM 101 taught by Professor Dr.ames during the Spring '09 term at Michigan State University.

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