ZOL_320_Lecture_Study_guide_3

ZOL_320_Lecture_Study_guide_3 - ZOL 320 2011 Lecture Study...

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ZOL 320 2011 Lecture Study Guide 3 Define, describe or illustrate the following terms: Genes and Development I. Epigenesis Regulatory DNA sequences Chromatin Euchromatin: less tightly packed chromatin, expressed Barr body transcriptional control enhancer silencer post-transcriptional control mRNA stability masked mRNA Gene expression Regulatory transcription factors nucleosome heterochromatin: very tightly packed chromatin, not expressed X- chromosome inactivation only in females, find areas with more densly compacted chromosomes and remain that way thoughout the life of the cell chromatin remodeling basal transcription complex alternative splicing translational control in situ hybridization (ISH) which cells are actually expressing the gene . Northern blot or gene arrays Compare expression between tissues (How much and which tissues make the mRNA?) Thought questions: 1. What are five steps at which gene expression can be controlled? 1. Chromatin remodeling (rearranging the histones in chromatin) 2. Transcription (making RNA from gene sequence) 3. RNA processing (mainly _splicing of transcript__)4. Translation (protein synthesis and mRNA stability) 5. Protein modifications for activation or inactivation 2. Describe three regulatory parts of transcriptional control of gene expression and how they interact. 1. The histone proteins in chromatin. (Has to be remodeled) 2. DNA regulatory sequences around the gene. (promoter, enhancers ,silencers) 3. The transcription factors. (regulatory transcription factors specifically expressed in a cell) To make a transcript first the nucleosome arrangement around the DNA regulatory sequences must be opened up to make it less compact and therefore accessible to the
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regulatory transcription factors which bind to specific short sequences in the regulatory DNA sequence. Sometimes the nucleosomes slide away from the regulatory DNA sequence but in either case now the basal and
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ZOL_320_Lecture_Study_guide_3 - ZOL 320 2011 Lecture Study...

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