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Exam 2 objectives - Week 6 Reading Chapter 5 CSPI Trans...

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Week 6 Reading: Chapter 5; CSPI Trans Fats article 1. Lipids and CVD 1. Terms/concepts*: a. Satiety: contribute to the feelings of fullness b. essential fatty acid: fatty acids that the body needs but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs. c. usefulness of fats: d. triglycerides: one of the three main classes of dietarylipids and the chief form of fat in foods and in the human body. A triglyceride is made up of three units of fatty acids and one unit of glycerol… also called triacylglycerols e. fatty acid chain length: f. fatty acid saturation: g. hydrogenation: the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make fat more solid and resistant to the chemical change of oxidation. h. phospholipid: one of the three main classes of dietary lipids. Similar to triglycerides, but each has a phosphorus-containing acid on place of one of the fatty acids. Present in all cell membranes. i. sterol: one of the three main classes of dietary lipids. Structure similar to cholesterol. j. Cholesterol: a member of the sterols group. A soft, waxy substance made in the body for a variety of purposes and also found in animal-derived foods. k. Pancreas: l. Bile: emulsifier made by the liver from cholesterol and stored in the gallbladder. Doesn’t digest fat but emulsifies it so that emzymes in the watery fluids may contact it and split the fatty acids from their glycerol for absorption. m. Gallbladder: n. Emulsification: o. Lipoprotein: clusters of lipids associated with protein, which serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph. p. Micelle: q. Chylomicron: clusters fromed when lipids from a meal are compined with carrier proteins in the cells of the intestinal lining. Transport food fats through the watery body fluids to the liver and other tissues. r. LDL: Low density lipoproteins…transport lipids from the liver to the other tissues. Have a large portion of cholesterol. BAD cholesterol s. HDL: High density lipoproteins…return cholesterol form the tissues to the liver for disposal…large proportion of protein. t. linoleic acid:
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u. linolenic acid: poly unsaturated fatty acids that are essential nutrients for human beings. v. CVD: w. Atherosclerosis: x. Aneurysm: y. Thrombosis: z. Embolism: aa. heart attack: bb. Stroke: cc. hypertension 2. Be able to state common food sources of cholesterol, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids a. Cholesterol: eggs, beef, poultry, cheese, milk b. Saturated fatty acids: c. Mono-unsaturated: d. Polyunsaturated: e. Transfatty acids: margarines, fried foods, commericially prepared foods. 3. Describe the process of digestion and absorption of triglycerides, and small and large chain fatty acids a. Chewed swallowed stomach…fat separates from watery compounds, small intestine… bile mmixes the fats…fat digesting enzymes break the fats down. split into monoglycerides, free fatty acids, and glycerol… 4. Be able to state the Dietary Guidelines for total, trans, saturated fat.
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