Social - Chapter 12 Social Psychology Social Psychology The...

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Chapter 12: Social Psychology Social Psychology The scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others Attribution Theory The theory that addresses the question of how people make judgments about the causes of behavior Behavior is typically explained as being the result of either internal or external factors Determining Causality Distinctiveness: How behavior varies across targets Consistency: How behavior varies across setting and time Consensus: How behavior varies across people Attributional Biases FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR Tendency of people to overemphasize personal causes for other people’s behavior and to underemphasize personal causes for their own behavior DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION aka the self-serving bias Successes are internalized Failures are externalized BELIEF IN A JUST WORLD An attribution error based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people Impression Formation Schemata Primacy effect Self-fulfilling prophecies Stereotypes
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Impression Formation SCHEMATA The use of schemata speeds information processing Schematic processing aids in encoding and recall of personal information PRIMACY EFFECT The theory that early information about someone weighs more heavily than later information in influencing one’s impression of that person SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY The process in which a person’s expectation about another elicits behavior from the
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Social - Chapter 12 Social Psychology Social Psychology The...

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