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Groups - Groups and Individuals Groups Two or more people 3...

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Groups and Individuals Groups Two or more people 3 important qualities: 1. Collective Identity 2. Norm Sharing 3. Similar in action & interdependent with one another Why Join Groups? Accomplish tasks Emotional and social relationships Risky Shift James Stoner (1961) “Choice dilemmas” Groups make more risky decisions Occurs when group discussion leads to a more polarized position Kalven & Zeisel (1966) Used real juries In 209 of 215 cases, the outcome favored the initial position of the majority. Social Comparison & Persuasive Arguments Explanations Social Comparison Dilemmas evoke desire to be cautious or risky Relatively cautious or risky (people think) When positions are revealed, some people find that they are NOT as risky or cautious as others, and shift in the desired direction “One upmanship” Persuasive Arguments Desire to be right For some choices, there are better arguments for risk; for other choices there are better arguments for caution Each individual thinks only of a subset of these arguments More and better arguments come out on one side or the other, so people shift
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