RealWorldCh15-lecture

RealWorldCh15-lecture - The Real World AN INTRODUCTION TO...

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The Real World 2 nd Edition AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Kerry Ferris and Jill Stein Chapter 15 City and Country: The Social World and the Natural World
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2 Population Demography is the study of the size, composition, distribution, and changes in human population. Three basic demographic variables are crucial to understanding population dynamics.
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3 Population (cont d) • The first is fertility rates the average number of births per 1,000 people in the population.
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Global Fertility Rates, 2008 (Figure 15.1) The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, 2nd Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
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5 Population (cont d) • The second is mortality rates the average number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population. • A related concept is infant mortality rates the average number of deaths per 1,000 live births.
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Global Infant Mortality Rates, 2008 (Figure 15.2) The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, 2nd Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
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7 Population (cont d) • Also related is life expectancy the average age to which a person can expect to live.
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Global Life Expectancy, 2008 (Figure 15.3) The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, 2nd Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
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9 Population (cont d) • The third demographic variable is migration the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of resettling.
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10 Population (cont d) • Robert Malthus was concerned about population growth and overpopulation. His Malthusian theorem stated that exponential population growth would outpace arithmetic growth in food production and other resources.
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World Population Growth over 2,000 Years (Figure 15.5a) The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, 2nd Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
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12 Population (cont d) Neo-Malthusians believe that population growth will eventually outpace available resources and lead to a global catastrophe. Anti-Malthusians believe that family planning (contraception or any other method of controlling family size and birth of children) and other changes will eventually cause population shrinkage.
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13 Population (cont d) • They forecast a very different future when the pattern of demographic transition (a theory suggesting the possible transition over time from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, resulting in a stabilized population) now occurring in many industrialized nations spreads to the rest of the developing world.
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14 Urbanization Urbanization refers to the movement of increasing numbers of people from rural areas to urban areas.
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The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, 2nd Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
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RealWorldCh15-lecture - The Real World AN INTRODUCTION TO...

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