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CHAP05_new - Chapter 5 1 Reactions in Aqueous Reactions in...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 1 Reactions in Aqueous Reactions in Aqueous Solution Solution Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 2 Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + NaCl(aq) This is a reaction in which reactants are in solution Solution – homogeneous mixture composed of two parts: solute – the medium which is dissolved solvent – the medium which dissolves the solute. Chapter 5 3 Compounds in Water Compounds in Water Some compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water – electrolytes Those compounds which do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water are called – nonelectrolytes Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 4 Ionic Compounds in Water (Electrolytes) Ionic Compounds in Water (Electrolytes) The conductivity of the solution is due to the formation of ions when the compound dissolves in water These ions are not the result of a chemical reaction, they are the result of a dissociation of the molecule into ions that compose the solid. ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 aq Cl aq Na s NaCl O H- + + → Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 5 Ionic Compounds in Water Ionic Compounds in Water Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 6 Molecular Compounds in Water(Nonelectrolytes) Molecular Compounds in Water(Nonelectrolytes) In this case no ions are formed, the molecules just disperse throughout the solvent. ) ( ) ( 2 aq sugar s sugar O H → Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 7 Molecular Compounds in Water(Nonelectrolytes) Molecular Compounds in Water(Nonelectrolytes) There are exceptions to this, some molecules are strongly attracted to water and will react with it.- +- + + → + + → + Cl O H O H HCl OH NH O H NH 3 2 4 2 3 Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 8 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong electrolytes – A substance which completely ionizes in water. For example:- + + → + Cl O H O H HCl 3 2 Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 9 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong and Weak Electrolytes Weak electrolyte : A substance which partially ionizes when dissolved in water. For example: +- + ⇔ + O H CO CH O H H CO CH 3 2 3 2 2 3 Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Chapter 5 10 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong and Weak Electrolytes +- + ⇔ + O H CO CH O H H CO CH 3 2 3 2 2 3 Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Notice that the arrow in this reaction has two heads, this indicates that two opposing reactions are occurring simultaneously. Chapter 5 11 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong and Weak Electrolytes O H H CO CH O H CO CH and O H CO CH O H H CO CH 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 + → + + → + +- +- Compounds in Aqueous Solution Compounds in Aqueous Solution Since both reactions occur at the same time, this is called a chemical equilibrium. Chapter 5 12 Precipitation Reaction Precipitation Reaction Chapter 5...
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