CHAP06_new - Principles of Reactivity: Energy and Chemical...

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Chapter 6 1 Principles of Reactivity: Principles of Reactivity: Energy and Chemical Energy and Chemical Reactions Reactions Chapter 6 Chapter 6

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Chapter 6 2 Energy: Some Basics Energy: Some Basics From Physics: Force – a kind of push or pull on an object. Energy – the capacity to do work. Work – force applied over a distance w = F × d Heat – energy transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object.
Chapter 6 3 Kinetic and Potential Energy Kinetic Energy (Thermal Energy) – energy due to motion. 2 2 1 mv E k = Energy: Some Basics Energy: Some Basics

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Chapter 6 4 Kinetic and Potential Energy Potential Energy (Stored Energy) – the energy an object possesses due to its position. - Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy. Example: a ball of clay dropping off a building. Energy: Some Basics Energy: Some Basics
Chapter 6 5 First Law of Thermodynamics “The total amount of energy in the universe is fixed.” Also referred to as the “Law of Conservation of Energy” Energy: Some Basics

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Chapter 6 6 Temperature and Heat Temperature is a measure of heat energy Heat is not the same as temperature. The more thermal energy a substance has the greater its molecular motion (kinetic energy). The total thermal energy in an object is the sum of the energies of all the “bodies” in the object. Energy: Some Basics
Chapter 6 7 Systems and Surroundings System – portion of the universe we wish to study. Surroundings – everything else. Universe = System + Surroundings Energy: Some Basics

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Chapter 6 8 Directionality of Heat Heat energy always flows from the hot object to the cold object. Energy: Some Basics - this flow continues until the two objects are at the same temperature (thermal equilibrium).
Chapter 6 9 Directionality of Heat Exothermic – Heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings (object will feel “hot”). Endothermic – Heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings (object will fell “cold”). Energy: Some Basics

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Chapter 6 10 Energy Units SI Unit for energy is the joule, J: A more traditional unit is the Calorie Calorie (cal) – amount of energy required to raise 1.0 g of water 1 o C. 1cal = 4.184J 2 2 s / m kg 1 J 1 = Energy: Some Basics
Chapter 6 11 Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity The amount of heat transferred is dependant on three quantities: Quantity of material Size of temperature change Identity of the material

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Chapter 6 12 Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity ( 29 T m c q × = q = energy c = specific heat capacity T = temperature change initial final T T T - =
Chapter 6 13 Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity ( 29 T m c q × = exothermic - T -q endothermic + T +q

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14 Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity ( 29 T m c q × = Specific heat capacity can be either per gram (J/g( o C) or per mole (J/mol( o C). The smaller a substances specific heat capacity, the
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course CHEM 1211k taught by Professor Wood during the Fall '07 term at Valdosta State University .

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CHAP06_new - Principles of Reactivity: Energy and Chemical...

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