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CHAP08_new - Atomic Electronic Atomic Configurations and...

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Chapter 8 1 Atomic Electronic Atomic Electronic Configurations and Configurations and Chemical Periodicity Chemical Periodicity Chapter 8 Chapter 8
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Chapter 8 2 Electron Spin Electron Spin Effective Nuclear Charge Effective Nuclear Charge Effective nuclear charge - The charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom.
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Chapter 8 3 Electron Spin Electron Spin Effective Nuclear Charge Effective Nuclear Charge - Electrons are attracted to the nucleus, but repelled by the electrons that screen it from the nuclear charge. - The nuclear charge experienced by an electron depends on its distance from the nucleus and the number of core electrons. - As the average number of screening electrons ( S ) increases, the effective nuclear charge ( z eff ) decreases. - As the distance from the nucleus increases, S increases and z eff decreases. z eff = z - S
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Chapter 8 4 Electron Spin Electron Spin Pauli Exclusion Principle Pauli Exclusion Principle Pauli’s Exclusion Principle - - no two electrons can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers. - Therefore, two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins. - One electron has a spin of +½, the other –½.
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Chapter 8 5 Electron Spin Electron Spin Magnetism Magnetism Diamagnetic – Property of a substance that is repelled by a magnetic field. Paramagnetic – Property of a substance that is attracted by a magnetic field. Whether a substance is diamagnetic or paramagnetic depends on its electron configuration. - Atoms without “paired” spins result in a paramagnetic substance.
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Chapter 8 6 Electron Assignment Electron Assignment Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Orbitals and Quantum Numbers - Orbitals can be ranked in terms of energy to yield an orbital energy diagram.
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