CHAP09_new - Bonding and Molecular Bonding Structure:...

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Chapter 9 1 Bonding and Molecular Bonding and Molecular Structure: Fundamental Structure: Fundamental Concepts Concepts Chapter 9 Chapter 9
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Chapter 9 2 Valence Electrons Valence Electrons - The electrons involved in bonding are called valence electrons . - Valence electrons are found in the incomplete, outermost orbital shell of an atom. - We can represent the electrons as dots around the symbol for the element. - These pictorial representations are called Lewis Structures or Lewis Dot Structures.
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Chapter 9 3 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
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Chapter 9 4 Chemical Bond Formation Chemical Bond Formation - There are three types of chemical bonds Ionic Bond - electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charge (NaCl). Covalent Bond - sharing of electrons between two atoms (Cl 2 ). Metallic Bond - sharing of electrons between several atoms (Ag).
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Chapter 9 5 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Consider the reaction between sodium and chlorine: Na( s ) + ½Cl 2 ( g ) NaCl( s )
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Chapter 9 6 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Na( s ) + ½Cl 2 ( g ) NaCl( s ) f = -410.9 kJ - This reaction is very exothermic - Sodium loses an electron to become Na + - Chlorine gains an electron to become Cl - - Na + has an Ne electron configuration and Cl - has an Ar configuration
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Chapter 9 7 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation Lattice Energy ( H lattice ) – The energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions. Lattice energy depends on - the charge on the ions - the size of the ions Coulomb’s equation: Q 1 , Q 2 = charge on ions k = 8.99 x 10 9 J-m/c 2 d = distance between ions d Q Q k E 2 1 =
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Chapter 9 8 Covalent Bonding Covalent Bonding When similar atoms bond, they share pairs of electrons to each obtain an octet. Example a pair of electrons connect the two nuclei. Cl Cl Cl Cl +
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Chapter 9 9 Covalent Bonding Covalent Bonding Multiple Bonds Multiple Bonds - It is possible for more than one pair of electrons to be shared between two atoms (multiple bonds) - One shared pair of electrons - single bond (H 2 ) - Two shared pairs of electrons - double bond (O 2 ) - Three shared pairs of electrons - triple bond (N 2 ). - Generally, bond distances decrease as we move from single through double to triple bonds. H H O O N N
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Chapter 9 10 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule Octet rule – Atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons.
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Chapter 9 11 Drawing Lewis Structures Drawing Lewis Structures 1) Draw a skeleton structure of the molecule or ion showing the arrangement of the atoms and the connect each atom to another with a single bond. 2) Determine the total number of valence elections in
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CHAP09_new - Bonding and Molecular Bonding Structure:...

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