ISB_202_Exam_TWO_Review_Questions

ISB_202_Exam_TWO_Review_Questions - ISB 202 Exam 2 Study...

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ISB 202 Exam 2 Study Questions 1. Which macromolecules are the largest and most complex in living organisms? Proteins!! 2. What are some roles of proteins in organisms? Speed up reactions with enzymes and hormones turns things on and off -; transport molecules a) through membranes; structural - mechanical support; contractile allows muscles to stretch and relax; protective - antibodies fight diseases; Storage - stored food in seed embryos and eggs; Toxins - some kill bacteria 3. What are the two kinds of “transport” with which proteins help molecules get across cellular membranes? Passive and active transport - passive pumps from side with fewer solutes to side with more solutes and active transport doesn’t take any energy 4. Are all hormones proteins? Are all enzymes proteins? All enzymes are proteins but not all hormones are proteins 5. Which of the following has about 50% protein? Eggs, meat, cassava, milk or legume seeds? 6. What makes bread rise? (Multiple answers) flour, water, yeast ** NO GLUTEN IN BUBBLE GUM - gluten allows the dough to stretch ---- IMPORTANT not in slides!! CO2 rises and if there is gluten in the dow, it will stretch and rise! 7. What is gluten? The protein in the endosperm of the seed, with all of the starch - the little bit in there is gluten 8. What is the number one food crop in the world? Number two? RICE, WHEAT is No. 2; most plants are low in protein so big problem in the world where they eat wheat and rice in their diet A LOT 9. Plants generally are a good source of protein. True or False? FALSE 10. What commercial product is made from the outside layers of wheat seeds? Wheat germ 11. Which part of seeds has the highest percent protein? Embryo (baby plant), the rest is Endosperm - mostly STARCH, some protein. .. 12. What is the name of the protein malnutrition “disease” in humans? Kwashiorkor 13. What determines what a protein can actually do? The shape! - made up of amino acids 14. How many different amino acids are there? 20 - 8 in adults and 9 in children 15. What are the four parts of an amino acid? Which part is most important in determining protein function? Amine group, carboxyl group, carbon atom with H+, and R group (which gives them their shape and decides what they do) 16. What is the name of the bond that joins the amino acids together in a specific protein? peptide bond 17. Of the four parts of an amino acid, which one varies (and gives proteins their shapes)? R group 18. What are the four major levels of protein structure? Four levels of complexion: Primary - the order of sequence of two or more amino acids joined together - Dipeptide has 2 amino acids in the protein - Secondary structure - Shape of the molecule changes due to covalent bonding between H and O atoms - may be coiled (spiral staircase) or flat. the H and O
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sharing keep the protein in this shape - Tertiary (third level) - coils or shets start to fold into loops
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ISB_202_Exam_TWO_Review_Questions - ISB 202 Exam 2 Study...

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