ECE4762011_Lect22 - ECE 476 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS Lecture...

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Lecture 22 Power System Protection, Transient Stability Professor Tom Overbye Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 476 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
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2 Announcements Be reading Chapters 9 and 10 After exam read Chapter 11 HW 9 is 8.4, 8.12, 9.1,9.2 (bus 2), 9.14; do by Nov 10 but does not need to be turned in. Start working on Design Project. Firm due date has been extended to Dec 1 in class Second exam is on Nov 15 in class. Same format as first exam, except you can bring two note sheets (e.g., the one from the first exam and another) Exam/solution from 2008 will be posted on website shortly Exam covers through Chapter 10
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3 In the News: Boulder municipalization Last week Boulder, CO narrowly voted to move forward with municipalization of their electric grid Currently Boulder is in the Xcel Energy electric service territory (Xcel is a large Investor Owned Utility) Xcel has recently decided not to continue funding the Boulder “SmartGridCity” initiative, which has cost $45 million, triple its original cost. Xcel does not wish to sell its electric grid in Boulder, saying it would be extremely expensive for Boulder to go on their own. Source: NY Times 11/3/11; Thanks to Margaret for pointing out this story
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4 Power System Protection Main idea is to remove faults as quickly as possible while leaving as much of the system intact as possible Fault sequence of events 1. Fault occurs somewhere on the system, changing the system currents and voltages 2. Current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers (PTs) sensors detect the change in currents/voltages 3. Relays use sensor input to determine whether a fault has occurred 4. If fault occurs relays open circuit breakers to isolate fault
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5 Power System Protection Protection systems must be designed with both primary protection and backup protection in case primary protection devices fail In designing power system protection systems there are two main types of systems that need to be considered: 1. Radial: there is a single source of power, so power always flows in a single direction; this is the easiest from a protection point of view 2. Network: power can flow in either direction: protection is much more involved
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6 Radial Power System Protection Radial systems are primarily used in the lower voltage distribution systems. Protection actions usually result in loss of customer load, but the outages are usually quite local. The figure shows potential protection schemes for a radial system. The bottom scheme is preferred since it results in less lost load
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7 Radial Power System Protection In radial power systems the amount of fault current is limited by the fault distance from the power source: faults further done the feeder have less fault current since the current is limited by feeder impedance Radial power system protection systems usually use inverse-time overcurrent relays.
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