Dark Continent notes - Dark ContinentEuropes twentieth...

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Dark Continent—Europe’s twentieth century Preface: Europe has many different countries which have all had different types of gov—but the closest it came to the democratic nation state which has become the norm today were the monarchies of the Balkans. Nowhere did both men and women have voting rights Modern democracy, is basically the product of the protracted domestic and international experimentation which followed the collapse of the old European order in 1914 World war 1—turned Europe into a test of values Three rival ideologies—liberal democracy, communism and fascism—saw itself destined to remake society Wilson/Lenin failed to build a better world Nazis counter posed the racial welfare of the collectivity; against liberalism’s doctrine of the formal equality of states—it proposed a coordination of Europe’s economies as a single unit under German leadership After 1945, democracy re-emerged in the west—revitalized by challenge against Hitler Cold war represented the last stage of the ideological struggle for Europe’s future All ideologies like to present their own utopia as an End to history -- Ideologies matter as vehicles for belief and political action Soviet communism vs Nazism soviets truly radical break in attempt to create a new property-less society and to telescope an industrial revolution nazism, less ambitious and more secure at home and more aggressive abroad. ->its rhetoric masked greater continuities of ideas and institutions with the past - explains why the Third Reich posed the most serious challenge to liberal democracy Communisms impact upon democracy, was more indirect and less threatening than the challenges posed by hitler Century showed that politics cannot be reduced to economics: differences in values and ideologies must be taken seriously Fascism was the most Eurocentric of the three major ideologies Ultimately—question of values lies at the heart of this history—the values which drove people to act, which shaped and transformed institutions, guided state policy and underpinned communities, families and individuals. Problem of community life The Deserted Temple: Democracy’s Rise and Fall Before the First World War, Europe had 3 republics,--after it had 13 Cannot assume that democracy is suited to Europe(victory in the Cold War By 1930s most Europeans didn’t want to fight for democracy, there were nondemocratic alternatives made to meet the challenges of modernity. Making Constitutions Once Germany was defeated many countries and states lost no time creating reform In this crazy time—the jurist was king
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The aim of these constitutions was to rationalize power and sweep away the inconsistencies and irrational residues of the old feudal order—considering every aspect of social and political life in specific constitutional provisions Later—lawyers were blamed for collapse of democratic institutions
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course MC 201/202 taught by Professor Na during the Fall '10 term at Michigan State University.

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Dark Continent notes - Dark ContinentEuropes twentieth...

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