Lect+10+March+02+2010

Lect+10+March+02+2010 - Schedules of Reinforcement and...

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Schedules of Reinforcement and Choice Behavior Ch. 6 March 2, 2010
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Lecture Outline z Ch 5: Learned Helplessness Effect z I. Measuring behavior: The Cumulative Recorder z II. Simple Schedules of Intermittent Reinforcement: z A. Ratio Schedules z B. Interval Schedules z C. Comparison of Ratio and Interval Schedules z D. Response - Rate Schedules of Reinforcement z III. Choice Behavior: Concurrent Schedules z A. Measures of Choice Behavior z B. The Matching Law z C. Mechanisms of the The Matching Law
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Mini-review z Ch 5 { Early Investigations of Instrumental Conditioning { Modern Approaches to the Study of Instrumental Conditioning z Discrete- Trial Procedures z Free- Operant Procedures { Instrumental Conditioning Procedures z Positive Reinforcement z Punishment z Negative Reinforcement z Omission Training
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Thorndike and The Law of Effect z Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) z Thorndike's thesis showed that cats learn through a gradual process of trail and error. This trial and error leads to the "stamping in" of correct responses. z This led to much of his later work, and to the work of others, looking at the function of reward and punishment on learning
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Thorndike’s Law of Effect
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Discrete Trial and Free Operant Procedures z Discrete Trial: z Thorndike Maze and Puzzle Box Designs Subject could make one and only one response on each trial Usually looked at response latency z Free Operant: z Skinner Skinner Box Subjects could respond repeatedly, without intervention Operant response can occur at any time Operant response can occur repeatedly Could now look at response rate in addition to response latency
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The instrumental response Appetitive = pleasant
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Key Terms z Reinforcement: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increases or maintains the strength of that behavior. { Criteria: z Behavior must have consequence z Behavior must increase in strength z This increase must be the result of the consequences
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Key Terms z Positive Reinforcement: { Appearance of or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus (e.g. positive reinforcer) following a behavior so that the probability of the behavior is maintained or strengthened . z Positive Reinforcer : { A stimulus that an organism ordinarily seeks out such as food, sex, money, social attention z Not static quality of an object z Can be what on the surface appears to be aversive
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Key Terms z Negative Reinforcement : { Removal of or the decrease in the intensity of a stimulus (e.g. negative reinforcer) following a behavior so that the probability of the behavior is maintained or strengthened. z Negative Reinforcer : { A stimulus that an organism ordinarily avoids such as pain, restraint, and reprimands
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Effects of controllability of reinforcers Shuttle box Learned helplessness effect -effects of the controllability of aversive stimulation on learning -exposure to uncontrollable shock disrupted learning
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Learned Helplessness z Further implications of response-reinforcer
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:311 taught by Professor Rovee-collier during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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Lect+10+March+02+2010 - Schedules of Reinforcement and...

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