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Lecture+20+ch10-11-12+april22

Lecture+20+ch10-11-12+april22 - Chapter 11 Comparative...

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Chapter 11: Comparative Cognition I: Memory Mechanisms Thursday April 22, 2010
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Housekeeping Midterm I-III breakdown 90-100% A 86-89.99% B+ 80-85.99% B 76-79.99% C+ 70-75.99% C 60-69.99% D below 60.0% F 86-100% A 80-85.99% B+ 76-79.99% B 70-75.99% C+ 60-69.99% C 50-59.99 % D below 50.0% F Your total/157 = %
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Final Exam Final Exam: May 06, 2010 8:00 PM - 11:00 PM Cumulative: 65% MI-III; 35% will be on topics not previously covered Exam conflict More than 2 exams on one calendar day More than 2 exams scheduled in consecutive periods 2 exams scheduled for the same exam period
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Chapter 10: Aversive Control: Avoidance and Punishment Thursday April 15, 2010
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Punishment An aversive stimulus is presented if a response occurs and the response is weakened Many factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment: intensity, immediacy, schedule of presentation, and the availability of alternative behaviors Number of disadvantages to using punishments: requires constant monitoring of the subject, can lead to undesirable side effects such as aggression or attempts to escape from the situation.
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Other methods for reducing unwanted behaviors Experimental Analysis of Punishment Characteristics of the Aversive Stimulus and Its Method of Introduction Time out Overcorrection Response cost - point loss Manual restraint - response blocking Extinction Reinforcement of alternative behaviors
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Time out Removal of opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement One or more desirable stimuli are temporarily removed if the individual performs some unwanted behavior Often used with children Effectiveness Isolated room - reduced aggression, disruptive behaviors Remove child from ongoing activity Popular method Reduced unwanted behaviors without presenting any aversive stimulus
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Time out Omission Training (page 155-157, ch5) Example: Omission training is being used when a child is told to go to her room after doing something bad. The child does not receive an aversive stimulus when she is told to go to her room. There is nothing aversive about the child’s room. Rather, by sending the child to the room, the parent is withdrawing sources of positive reinforcement, such as playing with friends or watching television
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Time out In omission training, the instrumental response prevents the delivery of a pleasant or appetitive stimulus. Thus, this type of procedure also involves a negative contingency between the response and an environmental event. Omission training is often a preferred method of discouraging human behavior because, unlike punishment , it does not involve delivering an aversive stimulus.
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Overcorrection In some cases, if an individual performs an undesired behavior, the parent, therapist or teacher requires several repetitions of an alternate, more desirable behavior.
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