review1stmidterm - Announcements ● Review ● What will...

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Unformatted text preview: Announcements ● Review ● What will be covered on the exam: ● Ch1,2, 3. For Ch4 (as mentioned in class), you will only be responsible for material up to the heading: – How Do Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli Become Associated? (page 123- 139) ● The Blocking Effect ● The Rescorla- Wagner Model ● Other Models of Classical Conditioning Review 1 st midterm Ch1 - Historical Antecedents Descartes “HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS” • Dualism – humans have involuntary responses (reflexes controlled by the body) and involuntary(free will controlled by the mind) • • Simplification: Nativism – born with innate ideas. British Empiricism Empiricism – acquire ideas through experience. Association – mental link or bond between two “ideas”. Locke Hume Berkeley Aristotle • Laws of Association: • Contiguity • Similarity • Contrast • • It states that if two events repeatedly occur together in space or time, they will become associated. Hobbes • Alterative to nativism and empiricism. • • Accepted distinction between voluntary and involuntary behavior. • • Accepted mind controlled voluntary behavior. Summary of Historical Antecedents ● Prior to Descartes , most people thought of human behavior as entirely determined by conscious intent and free will. “I am the BOSS of me” ● Cartesian dualism . Events in the physical world are detected by sense organs. From here the information is transmitted to the brain. Involuntary action is produced by a reflex arc that involves messages sent first from the sense organs to the brain and then from the brain to the muscles. Voluntary action is initiated by the mind, with messages sent to the brain and then the muscles. Summary of Historical Antecedents ● Descartes influenced the following ideas: ● ● Philosophers concerned with the mind were interested in what was in the mind and how the mind works.The philosophical approach that assumes we are born with innate ideas about certain things is called nativism . Summary of Historical Antecedents ● John Locke-the mind started out as a clean slate ( tabula rasa , in Latin), to be gradually filled with ideas and information as the person had various sense experiences. ● This philosophical approach to the contents of the mind is called empiricism . Summary of Historical Antecedents ● an alternative to this position ● Thomas Hobbes - accepted the distinction between voluntary and involuntary behavior stated by Descartes and also accepted the notion that voluntary behavior was controlled by the mind. – voluntary behavior was governed by the principle of hedonism . – According to this principle, people do things in the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Hobbes was not concerned with whether the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance Summary of Historical Antecedents ● Added complexity to learning ● British empiricists, another important aspect of how the mind works involved the concept of association . ....
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review1stmidterm - Announcements ● Review ● What will...

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