Chapter+3+Classical+Antiquity

Chapter+3+Classical+Antiquity - Early psychological thought...

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Early psychological thought was intertwined with religion, philosophy, and science What is the nature of the world? Of reality? Of man?  Of human knowledge? What is the meaning or purpose of human existence? What is the nature of mind/soul?  How does it relate  to the physical body and world? 11/18/11 1 Early Psychological Thought
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Ancient antiquity Pre-historic evidence is controversial: First evidence of burial: 350,000, or 100,000, or  only 30,000 years ago Bronze age collapse: 1200 – 1150 BCE cultures,  civilizations in the Mediterranean basin collapsed Illiad and Odyssey, date from either as early as 1190  BCE to as late as 850 BCE contain references to the  soul 11/18/11 Early Psychological Thought 2
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Historic epochs are inexact and psychological thinking was diverse, not monolithic Classical antiquity: roughly 600 BCE to ~476 CE Middle Ages / “Dark Ages”: 400 CE to ~1300 CE Renaissance: ~1300 to ~1600 11/18/11 Early Psychological Thought 3
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Vedic philosophy in India Vedas – existed as an oral tradition possibly dating  to 6000 BCE, then written earlier than 1000 BCE rituals, laws,  Upanishads  later additions, composed and orally  transmitted Concern the nature of reality, the universe,  conceptions of deity, soul, self Brahman and Atman 11/18/11 Early Psychological Thought 4
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Early Chinese Psychologies Confucius /K ng Fūz ǒ ǐ  (551 – 479 BCE)  humanistic philosopher  taught compassion for others, individual moral responsibility; concern  for language (rectification of names) Lún Y   ǔ or Analects of Confucius  20 chapters Emphasized propriety, loyalty, ren  concern or compassion for others 11/18/11 5 Early Psychological Thought
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Neo- and post- Confucian philosophers Mencius /  Meng Zi   (~372 – 289 BCE); concern for social  order; people are naturally good – social influences can corrupt  character; education in a favorable environment promotes development  of “four sprouts” innate tendencies toward goodness; wrote about  language as making distinctions; unjust rulers may be overthrown Hsün Tzu / Xunzi   (298 – 212 BCE)  People are NOT innately good;  Social order requires discipline, education.  Nature operates  independently of human behavior; cognitive abilities distributed  throughout the body; emphasized heart over brain; wrote extensively  about language 11/18/11 6 Early Psychological Thought
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Babylon and Egypt Babylonia  (parts of Iraq) influenced traditions of the  Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, and Arabs. Egyptian psychology was connected to polytheism and life 
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Chapter+3+Classical+Antiquity - Early psychological thought...

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