Chapter+06+Empiricism%2C+Associationism+and+Utilitarianism

Chapter+06+Empiricism%2C+Associationism+and+Utilitarianism...

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11/18/11 1 The rise of empiricism of 16 th  century intellectual, scientific, cultural  developments
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11/18/11 2 Averroes ibn Rushd influential commentaries on Aristotle;  scientific and medical discoveries Maimonides – credited Averroes as “my teacher”; Moreh  N’vuchim Guide for the Perplexed; argued against literal  interpretation of scripture Scholasticism: dominated European universities, attempted  to resolve discrepancies between reason and religious dogma  through analysis, dialectics The high Middle Ages
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11/18/11 3 Main figures of Scholasticism Anselm of Canterbury – Anselm’s proof of God as "that than which nothing greater  can be conceived"  Peter Lombard: taught at cathedral school of Notre Dame; became bishop of Paris.  The Four Books of Sentences  became the dominant theological work through 16 th   century Peter Abelard – formalized dialectic method;  concept of limbo Albertus Magnus: bishop, scientist, philosopher; teacher of Aquinas John Duns Scotus  (John Duns the Scottsman); complex logical proof of existence of God as first cause; logical and scriptural  defense of concept of Immaculate Conception of Mary  William of Ockham: advocated reform in methods and content of Scholasticism,  simplification  Bonaventure: bishop, then cardinal; divine illumination superior to reason; censured  Roger Bacon  Thomas Aquinas: wrote extensively on ethics, natural law, political theory: wrote  against “Averroism” and Aristotle’s conception of the eternity of the world; twice  condemned as “Averroist”
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11/18/11 4 What are the psychological issues? What is the nature of humankind? Evil?  Good?  Neither? What is/are the sources of knowledge? Revelation? Dogmatic authority? Reason? Observation?  Observation & Reason?
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11/18/11 5 Roger Bacon – a transitional figure Franciscan monk, lectured at Oxford, University of Paris Placed under house arrest c 1277-1279; died 1292 Argued for studying Aristotle in Greek, the Bible in Hebrew;  knowledge of optics came from Islamic scientists, particularly  Alhazen Rejected Scholastic dialectics as a method of study; performed  and reported experiments
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11/18/11 6 Inquisitions and crusades 1184 – 1230 suppression of Cathars and Waldensians  in what became France 1095 – 1272 nine major, several smaller, religiously  sanctioned military campaigns, against Muslims,  Jews, Christian heretics, Eastern Orthodox Church,  pagan Slavs and Balts Increased trade, increased flow of ideas from Muslim  world to Europe
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11/18/11 7 Legacy of the Late Middle Ages Questionable acceptability of studying Aristotle
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Chapter+06+Empiricism%2C+Associationism+and+Utilitarianism...

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