Chapter+07+The+Rationalist+Philosophers+Continued

Chapter+07+The+Rationalist+Philosophers+Continued -...

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Rationalism in the 17 th through early 19 th Centuries Descartes (1596 – 1650), dualism Spinoza (1632- 1677), monism Leibniz (1646 – 1716) monadology Kant (1724 – 1804) Critique of Pure Reason 1781;   Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone 1793 11/18/11 1 Topic 07 The Rationalists
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Remember the context Giordano Bruno (1548 – 1600) burned at the stake for  heresy: universe is infinite; sun is one of myriad suns;  pantheism Galileo called before the Inquisition in 1633, forced to recant Civil religious war in France between Protestant Huguonots  and French Catholics, St. Bartholomew’s massacre (1572) 11/18/11 Topic 07 The Rationalists 2
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Descartes’ contribution to science and mathematics The World (1633) – not published Meditations on First Philosophy  (1641) Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One’s Reason  and Seeking the Truth in the Sciences….(1637) Metaphysical, teleological Principles of Philosophy (1644): Defined laws of motion, inertia, conservation of energy that  provided the foundation for Newton Correspondence with Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia Passions of the Soul (1649) 11/18/11 3 Topic 07 The Rationalists
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The purpose of philosophy is to increase wisdom Wisdom will enable happiness The pursuit of virtue is sufficient for happiness – of  the soul.  Virtue is commitment to bring about what  reason determines to be best. 11/18/11 Topic 07 The Rationalists 4
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Descartes’ “provisional moral code” The first was to obey the laws and customs of my country, holding constantly to the  religion in which by God's grace I had been instructed from my childhood…. The  second maxim was to be as firm and decisive in my actions as I could, and to follow  even the most doubtful opinions, once I had adopted them, with no less constancy  than if they had been quite certain…. My third maxim was to try always to master 
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:470 taught by Professor Ingate during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter+07+The+Rationalist+Philosophers+Continued -...

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