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Chapter+07+The+Rationalist+Philosophers+part+1

Chapter+07+The+Rationalist+Philosophers+part+1 - Continuing...

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Continuing questions What is the nature of the human mind, soul,  knowledge, behavior? How does mind/soul relate to the physical body and  world? Ethics, God, religion remain central for some, but  drop out of the realm of consideration for others 11/18/11 1 Topic 07 The Rationalists
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Selected philosophic antecedents of psychology (from last lectures) Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626): identified barriers to advances  in knowledge; proposed induction as primary method of science  (rather than deduction) John Locke (1632 – 1704): tabula rasa; primary and secondary  qualities An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Some Thoughts Concerning Education 11/18/11 Topic 07 The Rationalists 2
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… antecedents George Berkeley (1685 – 1753): challenged the distinction  between primary & secondary qualities An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709); Treatise  concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and the  Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous (1713) esse est percipi (aut percipere) — to be is to be perceived God as the cause of sensory ideas and sensory consensus 11/18/11 Topic 07 The Rationalists 3
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….antecedents David Hume (1711 – 1776)  A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-1740), Enquiries concerning Human Understanding  (1748); Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751), posthumously published  Dialogues concerning Natural History of Religion (1779) The Copy Principle: “Complex ideas are composed of simple ideas, which  are fainter copies of the simple impressions from which they are  ultimately derived, to which they correspond and exactly resemble.” Associative Mechanisms: experience of conjunction of events  leads to belief in causal relationships; external impressions,  impression of reflections Hume rejects metaphysics 11/18/11 Topic 07 The Rationalists 4
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….antecedents David Hartely (1705-1757) Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his  Expectations Monism: vibrations in nerves are the basis of ideas, memory Classified pleasures, pains hierarchically, related to  development of self Jeremy Bentham (1748 – 1832) agent neutral utilitarianism John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873) advocated a science of human  nature; universal education, rights of women 11/18/11 Topic 07 The Rationalists 5
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Rationalism in the 17 th through early 19 th Centuries Rationalism may be differentiated from Empiricism in three  primary ways. Emphasis  on a priori knowledge. Emphasis on an  active mind that acts upon  incoming sensory information.
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