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Chapter+09+Naturalism+and+Reform-1

Chapter+09+Naturalism+and+Reform-1 - Recap Mechanization...

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Recap: Mechanization and Measurement Physical models of mental phenomena Advances in knowledge of anatomy & physiology,  advances in technology, and practical applications of  mathematics Hobbes Descartes Galton Ramon y Cajal, Sherrington 1 Naturalism and Reform
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Naturalism: all phenomena can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations. All states have a history. The most basic questions:  Where did we come from?  How did we get to be the way we are? How did the world get to its present state? 2 Naturalism and Reform
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Questions about origins of the world and current life forms date to ancient history Evolutionary theories versus constant state theories Evolution is part of the larger question of  cosmogony, the study of the origin of the cosmos. 3 Naturalism and Reform
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Ancient theories on nature and development of the world / solar system Babylonian, Hindu, Hebrew cosmologies / cosmogonies Anaxagoras (500 – 428 BCE): infinite universe of space and  atoms, no gods Pythagoras Aristotle (384-322 BCE): concentric eternal spheres; Ptolemy (90  – 168 CE)  4 Naturalism and Reform
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Renaissance theories on nature and development of the solar system Copernicus (1473-1543) published heliocentric theory Bruno (1548  - 1600) burned at the stake: heliocentric solar  system, infinite universe Kepler (1571-1630) defended, expanded Copernicus’ theory and  charts. Kepler’s laws described the motions of the planets.  Documented a new star 1604 1633 Galileo recants, BUT geocentrism is clearly a fading  doctrine. 5 Naturalism and Reform
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Descartes’ (1596 – 1650) view of conservation of motion led to his vortex theory of planetary motion It is obvious that when God first created the world, He not only  moved its parts in various ways, but also simultaneously  caused some of the parts to push others and to transfer their  motion to these others. So in now maintaining the world by  the same action and with the same laws with which He  created it, He conserves motion; not always contained in the  same parts of matter, but transferred from some parts to  others depending on the ways in which they come in contact.  (Pr II 62)  Naturalism and Reform 6
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Descartes proposed a theory of planetary motion Naturalism and Reform 7 “God first partitioned the plenum  into equal sized portions and then  placed these bodies into circular  motions… “ Mechanistic, but not completely  naturalistic.
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At the beginning of modernity… Newton (1643 – 1727) described universal gravitation and the laws  of motion. Newton showed that the motions of objects on earth 
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