Chapter+10+The+founding+of+Psychology

Chapter+10+The+founding+of+Psychology - The formal founding...

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The formal founding of psychology Psychophysics – relating the world to the mind  EXPERIMENTALLY Weber Fechner Helmholtz Wundt 1
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Psychophysics was one of the first areas of systematic research Psychophysics is the study of the relationships between the properties of  stimuli and the psychological impressions of those stimuli. Early researchers in psychophysics studied thresholds. Upper and lower absolute thresholds were operationally defined as the minimal or  maximal stimulus intensity that is detected 50 percent of the time. Researchers also investigated difference thresholds, the minimal stimulus  difference that is detectable 50 percent of the time. Researchers studying two-point thresholds in the skin senses developed the  aesthesiometer. 2
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How did psychophysics relate to philosophy? Solipsism: we can only know our own experience Realism: we perceive the world as it is Psychophysics demonstrated that relationships between  external reality and perception were lawful AND studies of thresholds, and derivation of  psychophysical functions demonstrated that  perception IS NOT always realistic 3
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Psychophysics advanced measurement of behavior Psychophysicists pioneered the quantification of mental processes. They demonstrated lawful relationships between physical stimuli and the  psychological impressions of stimuli. 4
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of experimental psychology A physician, specializing in anatomy and physiology  (where he made important findings about vagus nerve, and development  of male genital-tract, Mullerian ducts) He demonstrated that different locations on the body have different  two-point thresholds. Weber’s Illusion refers to the illusory experience of two points when  these are moved over insensitive or sensitive areas of the skin. In 1840’s Weber pioneered research into difference thresholds,  identifying the just noticeable difference (jnd) between stimuli in a  variety of modalities. JND is a constant proportion of stimulus magnitude, rather than 
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Chapter+10+The+founding+of+Psychology - The formal founding...

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