Chapter+16.1-Topic+13.1-1

Chapter+16.1-Topic+13.1-1 - What other 19th century...

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What other 19 th century developments are relevant to psychology? Philosophical developments: positivism, logical  positivism, post positivisim Auguste Comte (1799-1857), published six volume  The Course of Positive Philosophy: only observable  phenomena are the subject of science; cognitively  meaningful propositions can be verified by a finite  procedure Psychoanalytic Theories 1
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Positivism evolved Comte: accept only that of which we can be certain,  that which is publically observable Physicist Ernst Mach (1838 – 1916) agreed with  phenomena; knowledge is organized experience;  scientific concepts are defined in terms of the  procedures used to measure phenomena (anticipating  “operational definitions”) Psychoanalytic Theories 2
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Positivism evolved and evolved… Popper – shifted the emphasis to falsifiability, rather  than verification Propositions that might be metaphysical (non- falsifiable) at one point in history may become  falsifiable as technology advances (e.g. the ancient  Greek proposition that matter is made of atoms) Psychoanalytic Theories 3
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How does this relate to psychology? Late 19 th  Century, early 20 th  Century psychology and  medicine were heavily influenced by empiricism,  materialism, positivism Divisions over the use of introspection in psychology Psychoanalytic Theories 4
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How did a psychology that emphasized the unconscious mind emerge? Independent of philosophy of science Independent of substantiating claims of  associationists Philosophy of Karl Eduard von Hartmann Philosophy of the Unconscious 1869 Three types of unconscious processes govern the universe:  laws of nature; physiological processes; psychological  unconscious processes Psychoanalytic Theories 5
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“Cures” for hysteria by inducing “animal magnetism”  and the flow of spirits, catharsis Discredited scientifically in the first historically  recorded double blind experiment (designed by  Benjamin Franklin) Psychoanalytic Theories 6
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Mesmer and Mesmerism were discredited, but interest in non-physical cures had continued Marquis de Puysegur: sleep-like trances could be  induced without “magnetizing”, artificial  somnambulism technique for anesthetic uses Braid, 1843, The Rationale for Nervous Sleep, explained phenomena in terms of  concentration and suggestibility Named the phenomena  neurohypnology Psychoanalytic Theories 7
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Influences and antecedents for psychoanalytic theory…. .Krafft-Ebing (1840 – 1902) psychiatrist, sexologist Sexual Psychopathy: a Clinical-Forensic Study, 
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Chapter+16.1-Topic+13.1-1 - What other 19th century...

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