Chapter+16.1-Topic+13.1

Chapter+16.1-Topic+13.1 - Where did we stop? Functionalism...

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Unformatted text preview: Where did we stop? Functionalism All common human experience is a reasonable subject of study for psychology A key task of psychology is understanding the adaptive nature of particular behaviors, experiences, beliefs 11/18/11 1 Psychoanalytic Theories What other 19 th century developments are relevant to psychology? Philosophical developments: positivism, logical positivism, post positivisim Auguste Comte (1799-1857), published six volume The Course of Positive Philosophy: only observable phenomena are the subject of science; cognitively meaningful propositions can be verified by a finite procedure 11/18/11 Psychoanalytic Theories 2 Positivism evolved Comte: accept only that of which we can be certain, that which is publically observable Physicist Ernst Mach (1838 1916) agreed with Berkeley & Hume we experience only mental phenomena; knowledge is organized experience; scientific concepts are defined in terms of the procedures used to measure phenomena (anticipating operational definitions) 11/18/11 Psychoanalytic Theories 3 Positivism evolved and evolved Popper shifted the emphasis to falsifiability, rather than verification Propositions that might be metaphysical (non- falsifiable) at one point in history may become falsifiable as technology advances (e.g. the ancient Greek proposition that matter is made of atoms) 11/18/11 Psychoanalytic Theories 4 How does this relate to psychology? Late 19 th Century, early 20 th Century psychology and medicine were heavily influenced by empiricism, materialism, positivism Divisions over the use of introspection in psychology 11/18/11 Psychoanalytic Theories 5 How did a psychology that emphasized the unconscious mind emerge? Independent of philosophy of science Independent of substantiating claims of associationists Philosophy of Karl Eduard von Hartmann Philosophy of the Unconscious 1869 Three types of unconscious processes govern the universe: laws of nature; physiological processes; psychological unconscious processes 11/18/11 Psychoanalytic Theories 6 Mesmer and Mesmerism were discredited, but interest in non-physical cures had continued Marquis de Puysegur: sleep-like trances could be induced without magnetizing, artificial somnambulism Scottish & British surgeons investigated the technique for anesthetic uses Braid, 1843, The Rationale for Nervous Sleep, explained phenomena in terms of concentration and suggestibility Named the phenomena neurohypnology Liebeault & Bernheim and the Nancy School 11/18/11 Psychoanalytic Theories 7 Influences and antecedents for psychoanalytic...
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:470 taught by Professor Ingate during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter+16.1-Topic+13.1 - Where did we stop? Functionalism...

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