Review+before+Final - Behaviorism Historical antecedents of...

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Behaviorism Historical antecedents of behaviorism Empiricism, positivism, associationism Shechenov: denied thought caused behavior Direct contributors: Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Behaviorism 1
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Individual differences in dogs intrigued Pavlov Lecture XVIII of Pavlov’s in PsychClassics Pathological disturbances of the cortex Dogs conditioned to several sets of positive and negative  stimuli; stimuli were reversed 1924 flood in Petrograd  (former St. Petersburg)  disrupted  responding for some dogs – ultramaximal inhibition Behaviorism 2
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Report of behavior of one “inhibitable” dog 10 conditioned reflexes, positive, negative, to visual and  auditory stimuli, before flood A week after the flood, in the lab, the dog did not respond,  turned head away Deprived of food for three days, behavior did not change Experimenter stayed in room with dog, conditioned reflexes  returned; experimenter left, CRs disappeared Water on floor in room, CRs disappeared Clothes of experimenter in room with dog, CR returned Behaviorism 3
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Other Russian “objective psychologists” did not fare as well Bekhterev (1857-1927): apparently poisoned after  critical remarks about Stalin,  had studied with Wundt and Charcot,  after receiving medical degree; founded first Russian psychology lab in 1885 Reflexology – attempted to account for more complex behavior (facial expressions, gestures,  speech); published > 600 papers Attempted to show that Pavlov’s work was derivative and unimportant;  applied shock to  Kornilov’s reactology examined social behavior Behaviorism 4
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Thorndike, Watson and the birth of behaviorism Puzzle boxes Little Albert Behaviorism 5
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Investigations of trial and error learning Morgan had  described trial and  error learning in  animals Thorndike studied it  systematically Behaviorism 6
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Thorndike reached several conclusions 1. Learning is incremental 2. Learning occurs automatically, not mediated by thinking 3. The same principles apply to all mammals 4. Sense impressions and behavioral responses are connected by  neural bonds:  Law of exercise: law of use and disuse Initial formulation of Law of Effect Behaviorism 7
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1929 Thorndike modified the law of effect and abandoned law of exercise Positive consequences strengthened associations Negative consequences – punishment – did not Practice alone did not strengthen associations and  passage of time (without practice) alone did not  weaken associations Behaviorism 8
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Thorndike made contributions to educational practice as well With Woodworth, examined the doctrine of formal  discipline Transfer of training: identical elements of situations 
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:470 taught by Professor Ingate during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Review+before+Final - Behaviorism Historical antecedents of...

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