Ch01 - Organic Chemistry I Dr Alex Roche Organic chemistry...

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Organic Chemistry I Dr Alex Roche Organic chemistry is the chemistry of Carbon and its compounds. Organic molecules constitute the essence of life (fats, sugars, proteins, DNA), and also permeate our everyday lives (cotton, polyester, toothpaste, plastics, etc). Chemistry’s top two commercial fields are organic dominated: Pharmaceuticals and Polymers. Organic chemistry is also easy - IF: don’t fall behind d o t h e p r o b l e m s understand, not memorize Notes are available at: http://crab.rutgers.edu/~alroche/ Office: SCI 311 Lab: SCI 328F Tel: (856) 225-6166 alroche@crab.rutgers.edu Ch01 Introduction.doc 1
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Structure of the Atom Atoms consist of: Protons (+ve) Neutrons (neutral) Electrons (-ve) Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and have similar masses (1800x that of an electron). Atoms with the same number of protons but different neutrons are called ISOTOPES. E.g. 12 C (major isotope) 13 C (~1%, used in carbon NMR) 14 C (radioactive, used in Carbon dating) Almost all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus, but it is the electrons that are involved in the chemical bonding and reactions of an atom. Electronic Structure of the Atom Electrons display wave-particle duality. Electrons are located in orbitals around a nucleus, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle tells us that we cannot pinpoint exactly where the electron is. So we use the term ELECTRON DENSITY, which is the probability of finding the electron in a particular part of the orbital. ORBITAL: is an allowed energy state for an electron, with an associated probability function that defines the distribution of electron density in space. Atomic Orbitals These are different shells at differing distances away from the nucleus. Each has a principal quantum number (n). As n increases, Shells are further from the nucleus Higher energy Can hold more electrons n=1 can hold 2 electrons, n=2 can hold 8 electrons Ch01 Introduction.doc 2
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First Electron Shell Contains the 1s orbital. An s orbital is spherical, so the electron density is only a function of the distance from the nucleus. Second Electron Shell Contains the 2s and the 2p orbitals. 2s is also spherically symmetrical, but is not a simple exponential function. Most of the electron density is further away, past a NODE (region of zero electron density). Ch01 Introduction.doc 3
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The second shell also contains three 2p atomic orbitals. These are oriented in the three spatial directions. (2p x , 2p y , 2p z ). Orbitals of the same energy are said to be DEGENERATE. 2p orbitals are slightly higher in energy than 2s orbitals because the average location of the electron is further from the nucleus. The Pauli Exclusion Principle tells us each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, provided the spins are paired. The first shell (one 1s orbital) can hold 2 electrons The second shell (one 2s and three 2p orbitals) can hold 8 electrons The third shell (one 3s, three 3p and five 3d orbitals) can hold 18 electrons.
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Ch01 - Organic Chemistry I Dr Alex Roche Organic chemistry...

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