fluids - Fluids StatesofMatter PhaseChanges Density...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Fluids States of Matter   Phase Changes Density  Pressure Pascal’s Principle Buoyant Force Archimedes’ Principle Bernoulli’s Principle   Torricelli’s principle Viscosity   Turbulence  Cohesion  Adhesion Surface Tension
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
States of Matter Matter comes in a variety of states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. The molecules of solid are locked in a rigid structure and can only vibrate. (Add thermal energy and the vibrations increase.) Some solids are crystalline , like table salt, in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern. Some solids are amorphous , like glass, in which the atoms have no orderly arrangement. Either way, a solid has definite volume and shape. A liquid is virtually incompressible and has definite volume but no definite shape. (If you pour a liter of juice into several glasses, the shape of the juice has changed but the total volume hasn’t.) A gas is easily compressed. It has neither definite shape nor definite volume. (If a container of CO 2 is opened, it will diffuse throughout the room.) A plasma is an ionized gas and is the most common form of matter in the universe, since the insides of stars are plasmas.
Background image of page 2
Phase Changes Evaporation: Liquid Gas Condensation: Gas Liquid Melting: Solid Liquid Freezing: Liquid Solid Sublimation: Solid Gas Examples of sublimation: Dry ice (frozen CO 2 ) goes directly from the solid to the gaseous state (it sublimates). This creates an eerie, old fashioned effect, like graveyard fog in a spooky, old monster movie. Comets are very small objects containing frozen gases that sublimate when the comet get close enough to the sun. This creates the characteristic tail the can be millions of miles long. A volatile liquid is one that evaporates quickly.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Fluids The term fluid refers to gases and liquids. Gases and liquids have more in common with each other than they do with solids, since gases and liquids both have atoms/ molecules that are free to move around. They are not locked in place as they are in a solid. The hotter the fluid, the faster its molecules move on average, and the more space the fluid will occupy (if its container allows for expansion.) Also, unlike solids, fluids can flow.
Background image of page 4
Density Density is given by: ρ = m V The symbol for density is “rho.” Density is simply mass per unit volume. Water, for example, has a density of about 1 gram per milliliter. (It varies slightly with temperature and pressure.) The S.I. unit for density is the kg / m 3 . For water: 1 g mL ρ = 1 mL 1 cm 3 · · (100 cm) 3 m 3 1 kg 1000 g · 1000 kg m 3 =
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Pressure Pressure is given by: P = F A Pressure is simply force per unit area. Pressure is often measured in pounds per square inch (psi), atmospheres (atm), or torr (which is a millimeter of mercury). The S.I. unit for pressure is the pascal, which is a Newton per
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 55

fluids - Fluids StatesofMatter PhaseChanges Density...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online