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•
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Avogadro’s Hypothesis
•
At a constant
temperature and
pressure
, a given
volume of gas
always
has the same number
of particles.
•
The coefficients of a
balanced reaction is
the same ratio as the
volumes of reactants
and products
3
2CO (g) + O
2
(g)
2CO
2
(g)
For the above example, it is understood that
half the volume of oxygen is needed to
react with a given volume of carbon
monoxide.
This can be used to carry out calculations
about volume of gaseous product and the
volume of any excess reagents.
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Example
• 10cm
3
of ethyne (C
2
H
2
) is reacted with 50cm
3
of
hydrogen to produce ethane (C
2
H
6
), calculate
the total volume and composition of the
1
st
get balanced equation:
C
2
H
2
(g) + 2H
2
(g)
C
2
H
6
(g)
2
nd
look at the volume ratios:
1 mol ethyne to 2 mol of
hydrogen,
therefore 1 vol to 2 vol
3
rd
analyse:
If all 10cm
3
of ethyne is used, it needs
only 20cm
3
of hydrogen, therefore hydrogen is in excess
by 50cm
3
20cm
3
= 30 cm
3
.
In the end you’ll have 10 cm
3
Ethane and the leftover 30 cm
3
hydrogen
5
Molar volume
•
The temperature and pressure are
specified and used to calculate the volume
of one mole of gas.
•
Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PHYS 121 taught by Professor Burgeson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.
 Fall '11
 Burgeson
 Power

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