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20_Recall - Recall DistracterTask Overview...

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Recall Distracter Task Overview Generation & Recognition Generation Recognition
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The Distracter Task Subject sees a trigram (e.g., XBR) Immediately, subject starts counting backwards by 3’s. Subject attempts to recall the trigram. Repeat with new trigram For either: 3 sec. sec. 18  sec.
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Keppel & Underwood (1962)
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Proactive interference When material learned earlier interferes with  material learned later, the effect of the earlier  material on the later material is called  Proactive Interference (PI)
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Primacy As the result of PI, early list items are more likely to be retrieved. This is called Primacy . Primacy is enhanced because the early list items receive more distributed rehearsals. In general, the more distributed rehearsals an item receives the more likely it is to be retrieved (e.g. Von Restorff Effect).
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Explanation of Proactive  Interference The ability to retrieve a memory trace  depends on the set of unique cues that  activate the trace. In the distracter task there are no  unique cues that distinguish the most  recent item from earlier ones. 
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Release from PI (Wickens,  1964) On first three trials, all subjects received  consonant trigrams. On trial 4, half the subjects received  another consonant trigram and half the  subjects received a number trigram. Notice that a unique cue is available for the  number trigram.
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Results of Wickens (1964)
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Isolating Retrieval Cues (Gardiner,  Craik, & Birtwhistle, 1972) The English love gardening and know  the names of lots of flowers. Subjects heard flower trigrams On trials 1-3 they were wild flowers and on  trial 4 they were cultivated flowers Half the subjects on trial 4 were given the  cue “cultivated.”
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Results of Gardiner, et al.  (1972) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1st Trial 2nd Trial
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