Orneanitsocialbehaviorchapter1962 - Orne M T Antisocial...

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Orne, M. T. Antisocial behavior and hypnosis: Problems of control and validation in empirical studies. In G. H. Estabrooks (Ed.), Hypnosis: Current problems. New York: Harper & Row, 1962. Pp.137-192. Antisocial Behavior and Hypnosis: Problems of Control and Validation in Empirical Studies MARTIN T. ORNE, M.D.,Ph.D.* Introduction One of the oldest questions in the hypnotic literature is whether a deeply hypnotized individual can be induced to perform antisocial or self-destructive acts. A question of marked historical concern and one with far-reaching implications for an understanding of hypnotic phenomena as a whole, it nevertheless remains unresolved to this day. A review of experimental and criminologic literature not only fails to provide a conclusive answer, but also reveals that extant reports are often contradictory. This discussion re-analyzes the relevant issues in an attempt to provide a more systematic and meaningful context for re-examining the existing data. Such re-examination should suggest research approaches for an empirical resolution of the basic issues and, hopefully, will provide a basis for integrating * Studies in Hypnosis Project, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Mental Health Center. This study was supported by contract AF49 (638)-728 from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. I wish to thank Miss Emily F. Carota, Mr. Walter P. Pasternak, Dr. Preston S. Abbott, Professor Richard Jung and Dr. Ronald E. Shor for their comments and criticisms in the preparation of this paper. 137 138 HYPNOSIS: CURRENT PROBLEMS some of the theoretical problems encountered in a study of hypnosis with broader aspects of the social sciences. Classical Views and Their Modern Counterparts As early as 1784, the French Commission of Enquiry into Animal Magnetism concluded that "the magnetic treatment must necessarily be dangerous to morality" (Binet & Fere,
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1888, p. 22). Equally categorical were the affirmative answers given to the more fundamental questions of whether the hypnotized individual was completely powerless to resist any command of the magnetizer no matter what the consequences might be to himself or others. For example, in 1856 the general assembly of the Holy Roman Inquisition sent an encyclical letter to all bishops, condemning the use of magnetizing mainly because the technique allowed for an irreligious intervention with the supernatural, but also making the point that some hypnotized individuals were "completely under the magnetizer's control" (Binet & Fere, 1888, p. 55). At about the same time, however, Braid (1843), investigating hypnotic phenomena more thoroughly, concluded that the hypnotized individual's will to refuse suggestions was not impaired, that hypnosis was not dangerous, that, if anything, there was indication of an increase in moral sense under hypnosis, and that suggested crime was impossible. Systematic research on hypnotic phenomena was first undertaken in France in the 1880's
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:452 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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Orneanitsocialbehaviorchapter1962 - Orne M T Antisocial...

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