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OrneEetallowhypvulnerability - Orne E C Whitehouse W G...

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Orne, E. C., Whitehouse, W. G., Dinges, D. F., & Orne, M. T. Memory liabilities associated with hypnosis: Does low hypnotizability confer immunity? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1996, 44, 354-369. MEMORY LIABILITIES ASSOCIATED WITH HYPNOSIS: Does Low Hypnotizability Confer Immunity?1 EMILY CAROTA ORNE, WAYNE G. WHITEHOUSE, DAVID F. DINGES, AND MARTIN T. ORNE 2 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Abstract: Retrospective analyses of data from the authors' program of research on hypnosis and memory are presented, with special emphasis on effects observed among low hypnotizable individuals. In Experiment I, participants completed seven forced-recall trials in an attempt to remember a series of pictures that had been shown 1 week earlier. For half the participants, the middle five trials were carried out using hypnotic procedures; the remaining participants performed all recall attempts in a motivated waking condition. Hypnosis failed to enhance correct recall for either high or low hypnotizable participants beyond the hypermnesia and reminiscence effects associated with repeated retrieval attempts over time. However, whereas high hypnotizable participants produced substantial numbers of confident recall errors (i.e., intrusions) independent of the use of hypnosis, low hypnotizable participants exposed to hypnotic procedures reported significantly more intrusions than their counterparts in the waking condition. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to identify whether specific recollections, reported during two forced-interrogatory recall tests conducted 1 week earlier, had originated in the first or second of those tests. A general bias to misattribute previously reported recollections to the first of two recall occasions was observed; however, the effect was greatest among low hypnotizables who had undergone the second recall attempt in hypnosis. The findings imply that highly hypnotizable individuals are not unique in their vulnerability to distortions of memory induced by hypnotic techniques. Individuals of lesser hypnotic capacity also manifest memory alterations when exposed to such procedures. Modern scientific studies of hypnosis routinely take into account individual differences in hypnotic responsivity when assessing the out- Manuscript submitted November 17, 1995; final revision received May 10, 1996. 1 This research was supported in part by Grants MH19156 and MH44193 from the National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Public Health Service; in part by Grants 82-IJ- CX- 0007 and 87-IJ-CX-0052 from the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of
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Justice; and in part by a grant from the Institute for Experimental Psychiatry Research Foundation. 2 Requests for reprints should be addressed to Emily Carota Orne, Institute for
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OrneEetallowhypvulnerability - Orne E C Whitehouse W G...

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