OrneWenderAnticSocialization

OrneWenderAnticSocialization - Orne M T Wender P H...

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Orne, M. T., & Wender, P. H. Anticipatory socialization for psychotherapy: Method and rationale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 124, 1202-1212. Anticipatory Socialization for Psychotherapy: Method and Rationale BY MARTIN T. ORNE, M.D., PH.D., AND PAUL H. WENDER, M.D. There is a strong positive relationship between a patient's perception of psychotherapy and its ultimate success. Some patients who appear to lack motivation for treatment may be capable of profiting from psychotherapy if they are taught what to expect--if they understand the "rules of the game." A clinical procedure for introducing such patients to psychotherapy is outlined by the authors, who also present excerpts from a hypothetical socialization interview. PSYCHOTHERAPY WILL BE VIEWED here as a special form of social interaction.1 The transactions which take place in psychotherapy, like those of any other social enterprise, can run their normal course only if the participants are familiar with certain ground rules, including the purpose of the enterprise and the roles to be played by the participants. Only if this requirement is met can the psychiatrist judge his patient's aptness for treatment, capacity for insight, etc.; only then can the patient benefit from the opportunity offered him. A therapist whose patients do not have the requisite understanding of the assumptions underlying psychotherapy will encounter serious difficulties, especially if he is not fully aware of this deficit. The purpose of this paper will be to argue that an important determinant of success and failure in psychotherapy is the degree to which the patient understands the rules of the game. Further, several techniques of training will be proposed which may facilitate psychotherapy in patients who may lack the necessary understanding, and evidence will be presented to show that one of these techniques has the desired effect. The Enterprise of Psychotherapy In this century, the writings of Freud and the dynamic psychologists who followed him have had such a major impact that the basic assumptions of depth psychology are widely available, although in an admittedly crude form. Psychotherapy is sought by a relatively high proportion of individuals in some social groups, so that virtually all members of the group have acquired considerable sophistication. It is not unlikely Dr. Orne is professor of psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, and director of the unit for experimental psychiatry, Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 111 N. 49th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19139. Dr. Wender is medical officer in research, laboratory of clinical science, National Institute of Mental Health, and instructor, department of child psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 21205. This manuscript was originally prepared as part of a research proposal while the authors
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OrneWenderAnticSocialization - Orne M T Wender P H...

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