OrneWhitehouseencyclopedia - Personal pre-publication copy...

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Personal pre-publication copy of a paper eventually published as Orne, M.T., & Whitehouse, W.G. Hypnosis. In G. Fink (Ed.), Encyclopedia of stress (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 2000. Pp. 446-452. Hypnosis Martin T. Orne and Wayne G. Whitehouse University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine I. Historical Background II. Induction of Hypnosis III. Hypnotizability Assessment and the Phenomena of Hypnosis IV. Hypnosis for Stress Management V. Conclusion 1 2 Hypnosis GLOSSARY hypnotic induction A series of suggestions that focus attention and bring about the transition from an ordinary waking experience to hypnosis. hypnotizability The potential to experience hypnosis, a stable trait that varies from person to person, which can be assessed by standardized test procedures. nonspecific effect A therapeutic outcome (e.g., symptom relief) that follows a hypnotic procedure but which occurs regardless of the patient's ability to experience deep hypnosis. 3 Hypnosis Hypnosis is a psychological state or condition that occurs when appropriate suggestions produce alterations in a person's perception, memory, or mood. As a treatment modality, hypnosis provides a versatile technique to alleviate the impact of stress in a majority of individuals.
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I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Special healing properties have been ascribed to trancelike conditions throughout civilizations and time. Priests of ancient Egypt and Greece induced a state of "temple sleep" in afflicted individuals, accompanied by incantations designed to promote recovery. Similarly, witchcraft practiced during the middle ages and exorcisms to alleviate spiritual possession by demons, as well as faith-healing in relatively modern times, each appear to involve elements of what is today subsumed by the term "hypnosis." Historically, explanations for the effectiveness of many of these practices appealed to supernatural or metaphysical causes. More modern perspectives arose from controversies surrounding the work of the Austrian physician, Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) and his followers. Working in France at the time of the American Revolutionary War, Mesmer observed that some patients derived benefit from the passing of magnets over their bodies. In due time, Mesmer concluded that he, himself, possessed the critical "animal magnetism," a putative fluid within the body that, in combination with certain accoutrements, could be transferred to others as needed to heal them. This claim expressly identified the source of the healing power as a property of the magnetizer. Indeed, one of Mesmer's students, the Marquis de Puysegur, claimed to have successfully magnetized a tree on his estate, where some of his 4 Hypnosis peasant workers obtained relief from their respective ailments. Eventually, de Puysegur found that he could influence the behavior of mesmerized patients merely by talking with them, much the same way that hypnosis is used today. The fluid theory of animal magnetism was soon to be discredited, however, in a series of investigations conducted
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:452 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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OrneWhitehouseencyclopedia - Personal pre-publication copy...

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