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class+7+lecture_posted - Sensation and Perception Class...

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Sensation and Perception Class VII: Object Recognition & How to Read a Scientific Paper
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Middle Vision Texture segmentation and grouping (cont’d) Parallelism : Parallel contours are likely to belong to the same figure Symmetry : Symmetrical regions are more likely to be seen as figure
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Middle Vision Texture segmentation and grouping (cont’d) Common region : Two features will group if they appear to be part of the same larger region Connectedness : Two items will tend to group if they are connected
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Middle Vision Texture segmentation and grouping (cont’d) Dynamic grouping principles Common fate : Elements that move in the same direction tend to group together Common fate online simulation Synchrony : Elements that change at the same time tend to group together Synchrony online simulation
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Middle Vision Perceptual committees A metaphor for how perception works Many different and sometimes competing principles are involved in perception Perception results from the consensus that emerges
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Middle Vision The pandemonium model Oliver Selfridge’s (1959) simple model of letter recognition Perceptual committee made up of “demons” Demons loosely represent neurons Each level is a different brain area
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Figure 4.14 The Pandemonium model for recognizing an A
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Middle Vision Committee rules: Honor physics and avoid accidents Ambiguous figure : A visual stimulus that gives rise to two or more interpretations of its identity or structure Perceptual committees tend to obey the laws of physics Accidental viewpoint : A viewing position that produces some regularity in the visual image that is not present in the world Perceptual committees assume viewpoints are not accidental
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Figure 4.15 The wire-frame Necker cube
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Middle Vision Figure and ground Figure–ground assignment : The process of determining that some regions of an image belong to a foreground object (figure) and other regions are part of the background (ground)
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Figure 4.19 The Rubin vase/face figure
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Middle Vision Gestalt figure–ground assignment principles: Surroundedness : The surrounding region is likely to be ground Size : The smaller region is likely to be figure Symmetry : A symmetrical region tends to be seen as figure Parallelism : Regions with parallel contours tend to be seen as figure
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Figure 4.18 What is figure and what is ground?
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Middle Vision Gestalt figure–ground assignment principles (cont’d) Extremal edges : If edges of an object are shaded such that they seem to recede in the distance, they tend to be seen as figure Relative motion : If one region moves in front of another, then the closer region is figure
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Middle Vision Dealing with occlusion Relatability : The degree to which two line segments appear to be part of the same contour
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Middle Vision Parts and wholes Global superiority effect : The properties of the whole object take precedence over the properties of parts of the object
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class+7+lecture_posted - Sensation and Perception Class...

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