class+15+lecture - Sensation and Perception Class XV Touch...

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Sensation and Perception Class XV: Touch & Review
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Touch Kinesthesis : The perception of the position and movement of our limbs in space Proprioception : Perception mediated by kinesthetic and vestibular receptors Somatosensation : A collective term for sensory signals from the body
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Touch Physiology Touch receptors : Specialized structures that respond to mechanical stimulation, typically embedded on outer layer (epidermis) and underlying layer (dermis) of skin Multiple types of touch receptors Each touch receptor can be categorized by three criteria: 1. Type of stimulation to which the receptor responds 2. Size of the receptive field 3. Rate of adaptation (fast versus slow)
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Figure 12.2 Cross section of the human hand illustrating locations of the four types of mechanoreceptors and the two major layers of skin
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Touch Physiology Tactile receptors Called “mechanoreceptors” because they respond to mechanical stimulation: Pressure, vibration, or movement Meissner corpuscles Merkel cell neurite complexes Pacinian corpuscles Ruffini endings Each receptor has a different range of responsiveness
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Touch Physiology Other types of mechanoreceptors within muscles, tendons, and joints: Kinesthetic receptors : Play an important role in sense of where limbs are, what kinds of movements are made Muscle spindle : A sensory receptor located in a muscle that senses its tension Receptors in tendons signal tension in muscles attached to tendons Receptors in joints react when joint is bent to an extreme angle
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Touch Physiology Tactile receptors Mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical stimulation: Pressure, vibration, or movement Each receptor has a different range of responsiveness Information from mechanoreceptors is transmitted to the brain via specialized large diameter A-beta fibers .
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Touch Physiology Other types of mechanoreceptors within muscles, tendons, and joints: Kinesthetic receptors : Play an important role in sense of where limbs are, what kinds of movements are made Muscle spindle : A sensory receptor located in a muscle that senses its tension Receptors in tendons signal tension in muscles attached to tendons Receptors in joints react when joint is bent to an extreme angle
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Figure 12.3 A muscle spindle embedded in main muscle fibers contains inner fibers
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Touch Physiology Importance of kinesthetic receptors: Strange case of neurological patient Ian Waterman : Cutaneous nerves connecting Waterman’s kinesthetic mechanoreceptors to brain destroyed by viral infection Waterman lacks kinesthetic senses, which initially prevented him from walking or making virtually any motion.
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