class+20+lecture_attention+_part2_

class+20+lecture_attention+_part2_ - Sensation and...

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Sensation and Perception Class XX: Attention & Sensory Processing
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Figure 8.2 Search for the raised hand in this piece of a “Where’s Waldo?” picture
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Selection in Space Theories of Attention “Spotlight” model : Attention is restricted in space and moves from one point to the next. Areas within the spotlight receive extra processing “Zoom lens” model : The attended region can grow or shrink depending on the size of the area to be processed
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Visual Search Visual search: Looking for a target in a display containing distracting elements Examples: Finding your car in a parking lot or a friend in a crowd Target: The goal of a visual search Distractor: In visual search, any stimulus other than the target Set size: The number of items in a visual search display
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Visual Search The efficiency of visual search is quantified as average RT as a function of set size Measured in terms of search slope, or ms/item The larger the search slope (more ms/item), the less efficient the search Some searches are efficient and have small slopes Some searches are inefficient and have large slopes
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Figure 8.6 Laboratory visual search tasks
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Visual Search Feature searches are efficient Feature search : Search for a target defined by a single attribute such as a salient color or orientation Salience: The vividness of a stimulus relative to its neighbors Parallel search: In visual attention, referring to the processing of multiple stimuli at the same time
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Figure 8.7 Three-dimensional orientation is a basic feature used in the guidance of search
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Visual Search Many searches are inefficient Serial self-terminating search : A search from item to item, ending when a target is found
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Figure 8.8 Search can be much more laborious if you’re not familiar with what you’re searching for
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Visual Search Conjunction search : A search for a target defined by the presence of two or more attributes No single feature defines the target Defined by the co-occurrence of two or more features
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Visual Search Guided search : A search in which attention can be restricted to a subset of possible items on the basis of information about the target item’s basic features (e.g., its color)
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Figure 8.10 A six-dimensional conjunction
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Visual Search The binding problem : The challenge of tying different attributes of visual stimuli, which are handled by different brain circuits, to the appropriate object so we perceive a unified object Example: A vertical red bar moving to the right § Color, motion, and orientation are represented by separate neurons § How do we combine these features when perceiving the bar?
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Figure 8.11 A conjunction search with a binding problem
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class+20+lecture_attention+_part2_ - Sensation and...

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