class+22+lecture+_taste+part+2+and+vestibular_

class+22+lecture+_taste+part+2+and+vestibular_ - Sensation...

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Sensation and Perception Class XXII: Taste & Vestibular System
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The Four Basic Tastes The special case of umami : Candidate for fifth basic taste Comes from monosodium glutamate (MSG) Glutamate : Important neurotransmitter Safety issues in human consumption: § Can lead to numbness, headache, flushing, tingling, seating, and tightness in the chest if sensitive individuals consume a large amount § For most people, MSG does not pose a problem in small doses
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Anatomy and Physiology of the Gustatory System Taste processing in the central nervous system Pathway: Taste buds to cranial nerves to medulla and thalamus and then on to cortex Insular cortex: Primary cortical processing area for taste. The part of the cortex that first receives taste information Orbitofrontal cortex: The part of the frontal lobe of the cortex that lies above the bone (orbit) containing the eyes § Receives projections from insular cortex § Involved in processing of temperature, touch, smell, and taste, suggesting it may be an integration area
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Figure 14.6 Taste information projects from the tongue to the medulla, then the thalamus, then the insula, and finally to the orbitofrontal cortex
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The Four Basic Tastes Survival value of taste Taste is a system for detecting nutrients and antinutrients § Bitter: Might signal poisons § Sour: Configured to detect acidic solutions that might harm the body § Sweet and Salty: Our bodies need sodium and sugar to survive
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The Pleasures of Taste Infants’ behavior and facial expressions reveal innate preferences for certain foods Different flavored foods placed on tips of infants’ tongues: Sweet food evokes a “smilelike” expression followed by sucking. Sour produced pursing and protrusion of lips Bitter produced gaping, movements of spitting, and sometimes vomiting movements
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Figure 14.10 The two toddlers’ facial expressions reveal the taste qualities experienced
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The Pleasures of Taste Specific hungers theory : The idea that deficiency of a given nutrient produces craving (a specific hunger) for that nutrient Cravings for salty or for sweet are associated with deficiencies in those substances However, the theory has not been supported for other nutrients, such as vitamins Theory only holds for sweet and salty foods
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Coding of Taste Quality Labeled lines: Theory of taste coding in which each taste fiber carries a particular taste quality § Major source of controversy in literature Pattern coding (distributed representation): Theory of taste coding in which the taste quality is indicated by the pattern of activity across many different taste neurons Examples of both types of coding in other senses: § Color vision and olfaction use pattern coding § Hearing uses labeled-line approach
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The tastes that human subjects perceive for each of four stimuli: sucrose, NaCl, HCl, and quinine
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class+22+lecture+_taste+part+2+and+vestibular_ - Sensation...

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