pay the due of it on the day of its reaping, anddo not act extravagantly; surely He does notlove the extravagant.Qur’an, The Cattle:6.141OLIVE (Olea europa)The olive is a slow-growing, long-livedevergreen tree uniquely adapted to and adefining feature of the Mediterranean climate(Fig. 3). Archeological evidence of the olivedates to±10,000BCE, whereas the cultivatedolive originated±4000BCEin Asia Minor.The olive was not used by the Babyloniansand Assyrians, whose sources of oil weresesame and walnut, but olive was long knownin Syria and the Holy Land and was intro-duced to Egypt between 3000 and 1600BCE.By the time of Ramses II (1197–1165BCE)olive oil was used for illumination and as askin emollient for cracks and sunburn.The first use of olive oil was probablymedicinal,butitbecamethefirstgreatindustrial crop because of its use in illumi-nation; the burning oil of olive gives a veryluminous flame. Oil lamps of the ancientworld are among the most common artifactsof archeological digs in that area. The oil was
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