Juniper2007OriginSweetApple (dragged) 7

Juniper2007OriginSweetApple (dragged) 7 - from any possible...

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2007 January–February 51 www.americanscientist.org © 2007 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction with permission only. Contact [email protected] from any possible recent phylogenetic relationship. In the ITS diagram, M. niedzwtzkyana is considered now to be just a rare colored form of the wild apple and M. orientalis and M. pruni- folia are no more than local variants of the wild apple. Migration to the West As horse transport developed along the east-west trade routes, this “new” apple, a welcome migrant, would have moved into areas that were already at a fairly high level of sophistication in agricultural terms. The Fergana Val- ley, now in Uzbekistan, was one of the first areas in the world where the pioneer techniques of agriculture, the Neolithic revolution, were practiced. The tracks would have led onward to higher, cooler lands—not, at first, into the steaming hot Tigris-Euphrates val- ley—on the northern edges of the great Persian empires. The new apple would have found both fertile ground and, in all likelihood, ready acceptance as a new fruit to add to the already well- established fig, date and vine. It seems possible that grafting was invented in the Tigris-Euphrates valley, perhaps around Babylon, as irrigation and tropical heat raised the salinity of the soil. A combination of salt-tol-
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course HIST 302 taught by Professor Jensic during the Summer '10 term at Purdue.

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