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lec06 (dragged) 5 - (Huxley 1978 1998 Plant dyes were an...

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28 (Huxley, 1978, 1998). Plant dyes were an important part of the cosmetic arts (Fig. 2B) and aromatic ingredients from flowers (Fig. 2C,D) were incorporated into oils and fats for use in perfumes, unguents, and ointments (Fig. 2E). IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE TECHNOLOGY The Nile valley dictated the agriculture of ancient Egypt. Long stretches of flat land were bordered by perpendicular mountains and inundated by constant rhythmic seasonal flooding. The Greek historian Herodotus (484–425 BCE ) described Egypt as “ a rainless area but extremely fertile. Egypt is the gift of the Nile .” Egypt gave the world the first hydraulic engineering and systematic irrigation (Fig. 3). The Nile rises and falls with regularity, rising in July (canals were opened August 22) and continues to rise until the middle of October, and then rapidly subsides. Crops were sown in November and harvested in April and May (Singer et al., 1954). Basin irrigation, the basic system, consisted of a system of dikes to retain the flood and encourage infiltration in the soil.
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