lec06 (dragged) 7

lec06 (dragged) 7 - (Bottom) A more developed form with...

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30 Kingdom. Wheat was bound into sheaves and loaded onto donkeys for storage (Fig. 6C) or later carried in net baskets. Fruit was collected and packed in shallow baskets, artfully arranged (Fig. 7). Evidence of grain storage dates to Neolithic times in buried baskets or earthenware jars. Later the storage of grain and other provisions became a state function and communal silos and granaries were constructed (Fig. 8). In the temple of Abu Simbel built by King Rameses II (XVIII dynasty) the following words are caved: “ I (the God Ptah) give to thee (Rameses II) constant harvests, to feed the Two Lands at all times; the sheaves thereof are like the sand of the shore, their granaries approach heaven, and their grain-heaps are like mountains .” (Darby et al., 1976). The Roman world considered Egypt the “breadbasket of the world.” A B C D E Fig. 4. Cultivation technology in ancient Egypt. A. Development of the hoe. (Top) Primitive hoe cut from a forked branch.
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Unformatted text preview: (Bottom) A more developed form with hafted wooden blade. Both Middle Kingdom (2375 1800 BCE ). Source: Singer et al., 1954, Fig. 350. B. Soil preparation by hoeing; from a Tomb at Ti at Saqqara, ca. 2400 BCE . Source: Singer et al., 1954, p. 375. C. Plowing and hoeing; from a tomb at Beni Hasan, ca. 1900 BCE . Source: Singer et al., 1954, Fig. 43. D. Land reclamation. Trees are being cut in land clearing; clods are broken with mallets, soil is plowed, seed is sown on prepared ground. Note ladder like cross pieces on plow handle and shaft bound to a double yoke over the oxen horns. Source: Singer et al., 1954, Fig. 351. E. Seed is treaded by sheep driven across a field. The sower offers them a handful of grain to lure them on while another drives them with a whip. From a tomb at Saqqara, Egypt, ca. 2400 BCE . Source: Singer et al., 1954, Fig. 353....
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