39from mathematics to chemistry and from medicine to metallurgy. Despite advances in tech-nology, Egyptian culture became ever increasingly conservative and traditional, so that con-tinued advances were thwarted. Progress was hampered by the restraints of a rigid societyfirst run by an uneasy alliance between nobles and priests, and when racked by internalinstability, deteriorating to a stagnant theocracy. The decline was evident about 1000 BCEand Egypt succumbed to pressures from invading cultures: Phoenician, Libyan, Ethiopian,Assyrian, Persian, the armies of Alexander, Roman legions, and the proselytizing desertwarriors from Arabia who introduced a new religion and eliminated the old. After the 15thcentury, Egypt was controlled by the Ottoman Turks and later influenced by the colonialpower of France and England. It is hoped that an independent Egypt will be spurred on bythe archeological evidence that dominates the landscape and is continually uncovered. These
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