39 from mathematics to chemistry and from medicine to metallurgy. Despite advances in tech-nology, Egyptian culture became ever increasingly conservative and traditional, so that con-tinued advances were thwarted. Progress was hampered by the restraints of a rigid society first run by an uneasy alliance between nobles and priests, and when racked by internal instability, deteriorating to a stagnant theocracy. The decline was evident about 1000 BCE and Egypt succumbed to pressures from invading cultures: Phoenician, Libyan, Ethiopian, Assyrian, Persian, the armies of Alexander, Roman legions, and the proselytizing desert warriors from Arabia who introduced a new religion and eliminated the old. After the 15 th century, Egypt was controlled by the Ottoman Turks and later influenced by the colonial power of France and England. It is hoped that an independent Egypt will be spurred on by the archeological evidence that dominates the landscape and is continually uncovered. These ancient relics, ignored for thousands of years, should be an inspiration to restore the glory in
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