4Lectures 12 and 13EARLY MODERNSong(960–1279): Paper currency, planned cities, granaries, ship building; Canton had large non-Chinese settlements; silks and porcelains shipped to Japan and Egypt; advances in explosive power (fire arrows, flame throwers, bombs, grenades, proto-muskets, and cannon); experiments with moveable type; inoculation against small pox, pharmacies, astronomical clock; introduction of cotton, sorghum, green lentils (mungbean) from India, drought resistant rice from Champa; grain stored against shortages. Temujin (ca. 1155–1227) leader of Mongols in 1206 and proclaimed “Genghis Khan,” pushed into north China and takes Jin (Beijing) in 1215; annexed Jin empire, penetrates Szechwan; Grandson Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty beginning in 1271. Beijing becomes the capital and is rebuilt by a Muslim architect, succeeds Karakorum as principal centers of world attention. Puppet and marionette shows; restored Grand Canal extends from Hangzhou to Beijing; China fails to conquer Japan in 1274; fleets assembled for expeditions.
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