6Lectures 12 and 13of ceremonials associated with sowing vegetables and grains. He is considered to be the “author” of the renowned pharmacopoeia, Pen T’sao Ching(The Classic Herbal), compiled in the 1stcentury.Traditional Agricultural TechnologyBy the 6thcentury BCE, row cropping was developed. A treatise in the 3rdcentury BCE(Master Lu’s Spring and Autumns Annals) explains: If the crops are grown in rows they will mature rapidly because they will not interfere with each other’s growth. The horizontal rows must be well drawn, the vertical rows made with skill, for if the lines are straight the wind will pass gently through.Cast iron hoes were available in the 6thor 5thcentury BCE. The greatest invention during this period was the iron plow (ard) with a shallow plowshare that produced a narrow furrow. The introduction of this plow had a great influence on the agriculture of the West but the curved moldboard used in China was not adopted in Europe until the 18thcentury.K’ung Fu Tzu (Latinized as Confucious—Tsu means “master”) (Fig. 12-5) lived from 551–470
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Centuries, century BCE, agricultural technology, Plow, Master Lu