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lec12 (dragged) 9 - 10 Lectures 12 and 13 Japanese gardens...

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10 Lectures 12 and 13 Japanese gardens arose from Chinese culture via Korea but developed into an abstract art form to be- come one of the fi ne arts. Traditional Chinese elements were used but organized in a new form involving symbolism with great use of stone and sand (often raked into patterns), and the development of schools of tradition. There was a creative use of water and rocks, love of aged and gnarled trees, and new uses of non-traditional plants such as mosses. In the 10 th century, landscape gardens were in fl uenced by Zen, a religious and philosophical movement. High development of garden art include the famous Ryoanji temple , ikebana ( fl ower arrangement based on symbolic use of fl owers), sakai (miniature landscapes), and bonsai (miniature tree specimens). INDIAN SUBCONTINENT Historical The origin of the subcontinent is based on an ancient collision of a landmass with Asia to produce the Himalayas, a natural boundary between China and India. The name India (a Greek word) derives from the Sanscrit
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