10 Lectures 12 and 13 Japanese gardens arose from Chinese culture via Korea but developed into an abstract art form to be-come one of the f ne arts. Traditional Chinese elements were used but organized in a new form involving symbolism with great use of stone and sand (often raked into patterns), and the development of schools of tradition. There was a creative use of water and rocks, love of aged and gnarled trees, and new uses of non-traditional plants such as mosses. In the 10th century, landscape gardens were in F uenced by Zen, a religious and philosophical movement. High development of garden art include the famous Ryoanji temple , ikebana ( F ower arrangement based on symbolic use of F owers), sakai (miniature landscapes), and bonsai (miniature tree specimens). INDIAN SUBCONTINENT Historical The origin of the subcontinent is based on an ancient collision of a landmass with Asia to produce the Himalayas, a natural boundary between China and India. The name India (a Greek word) derives from the
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