11Lectures 12 and 13India was greatly influenced by two incursions from the 7thto the 13thcenturies. The eastern sweep of Islamic warriors which started a few centuries after the Arabian prophet Mohammed (570?–632) and the invasions of the Mongols (Moguls), part of the conquests of Genghis Khan (ca. 1115–1227). The two incursions were to coalesce when Timur Lenk (Tamerlane), a Mongol invader, adopted Islam and raided Delhi in 1398.As a result of Islamic incursions, the Indian subcontinent was split into a series of Muslim and Hindu kingdoms and principalities that existed in relative prosperity. These were essentially plucked by Britain in the 19thcentury through colonial domination. British India was divided between the Muslims (Pakistan and the noncontiguous East Pakistan) and the Hindus (India). The countries of the subcontinent now consist (from West to East) of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) with Nepal and Bhutan nestled in the Himalayas.
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