18 Lectures 12 and 13 day, but robots and grafting machines have been developed in Japan and Korea that can successfully make 400 to 1200 grafts per hour (Fig. 12-18). Graft technology of vegetables seedlings now has been adopted in Europe. Hybrid Rice Plant breeding technology has been enthusiastically adopted in Japan, China, and Korea. A number of unique advances were achieved including seedless watermelon developed by Hitoshi Kihara in Japan (1951), anther-culture technology to produce inbreds from doubled haploids and the development of hybrid rice by Longping Yuan (Fig. 12-19) in China (Li and Yuan, 2000). Hybrid rice represents an extraordinary achievement since wisdom had considered the incorporation of heterosis impractical in self-pollinated crops. It was successfully developed and released after the discovery of male-sterile cytoplasm at Hainan Island in 1970. The three-line system uses a male sterile or A line, a maintainer or B line, and a restorer or R line. The
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