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Unformatted text preview: 1 Lectures 12 and 13 Lectures 1213 History of Agricultural and Horticultural Technology in Asia Jules Janick Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Purdue University West Lafayette. IN 47907-1165, USA Abstract The beginnings of agriculture in eastern Asia date to Neolithic times, 7000 to 9000 years ago, with rice cultivation about 4000 BCE. Agricultural origins in the Indus valley occur about the same time. In North China and Manchuria, a civilization was established about 2000 BCE and by the Zhou dynasty, 1000 BCE, there is evidence of canals and extensive irrigation. The writings of Confucius (551470 BCE) mention 44 food plants including horticultural crops such as peach, plum, Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume ), jujube, chestnut, mulberry, quince, Chinese cabbage, bottle gourds, and various melons. First century agricultural manuals describe intensive production of crops, pretreat- ment of seed, irrigated rice with circulated water, ridge cultivation, pot irrigation, crop scheduling,...
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